Introduction

This book contains technical documentation for System76 models. The source can be viewed on GitHub. It is recommended to start with one of the model pages, as they link to all relevent information.

Models

System76 provides laptops, desktops and servers with Linux pre-installed. This documentation includes the following System76 models:

Adder WS (addw1)

Adder WS

The System76 Adder WS is a laptop with the following specifications:

  • CPU
  • Firmware
    • System76 Firmware (non-open)
  • GPU
    • NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2070
    • eDP 15.6-inch 3840x2160 OLED
    • 1 x HDMI (w/HDCP) output
    • 1 x Mini DisplayPort (1.3) output
    • 1 x DisplayPort (1.3) over USB 3.1 Type C output
  • Memory
    • Up to 64GB dual-channel DDR4 @ 2666 MHz, or
    • Up to 32GB dual-channel DDR4 @ 3000 MHz

Adder WS (External Overview)

Left side overview:

Left Ports

Right side overview:

Right Ports

Front side overview:

Front Ports

Back side overview:

Back Ports

Bottom case screw sizes

The Adder WS uses a single size of screw for securing the bottom case, battery, and keyboard.

Bottom case screws

Front LED lights

Front LED lights

IconColorDescription
Power LEDOrangeDC power plugged in
GreenComputer is on
Blinking greenComputer is sleeping
Battery LEDOrangeBattery charging
GreenBattery fully charged
Blinking orangeBattery critically low
Airplane LEDGreenAirplane mode is on
(WiFi/Bluetooth disabled)
Storage LEDGreenStorage drive activity
Num Lock LEDGreenNum Lock enabled
Caps Lock LEDGreenCaps Lock enabled
Scroll Lock LEDGreenScroll Lock enabled
GPU LEDOffGPU in MSHYBRD Mode
GreenGPU in Discrete Mode

Keyboard Shortcuts

The Adder WS has the following actions available using the Fn and Function keys:

KeyShortcutAction
Fn-F1Fn+F1Toggle trackpad
Fn-F2Fn+F2Lock screen and toggle built-in LCD
Fn-F3Fn+F3Mute
Fn-F5Fn+F5Volume down
Fn-F6Fn+F6Volume up
Fn-F7Fn+F7Toggle displays
Fn-F8Fn+F8Screen brightness down
Fn-F9Fn+F9Screen brightness up
Fn-F10Fn+F10Toggle webcam
Fn-F11Fn+F11Toggle airplane mode
Fn-F12Fn+F12Suspend
1Fn+1Toggle fan between max/automatic
Fn-*Fn+*Toggle keyboard backlight
/Fn+/Cycle keyboard color
-Fn+-Decrease keyboard brightness
+Fn++Increase keyboard brightness

External Displays

The Adder WS supports Mini DisplayPort, HDMI, and DisplayPort over USB-C connections for external displays.

Adder WS (Internal Overview)

Bottom panel overview:

Internal Overview

  • GPU fan is highlighted in cyan
  • GPU fan is highlighted in light orange
  • RAM is highlighted in green
  • M.2 SSD is highlighted in orange
  • Wireless/Bluetooth module is highlighted in purple
  • Battery is highlighted in white
  • 2.5" drive bay is highlighted in blue

Under-the-keyboard overview:

Under-the-Keyboard Overview

  • CMOS battery is highlighted in red

Adder WS (Parts & Repairs)

Many components on your Adder WS can be upgraded or replaced as necessary. Follow these step-by-step guides for instructions:

Replacing the keyboard:

Keyboard replacement is simple and requires only a cross-head screwdriver.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 10 minutes
Difficulty: Easy
Screws: 2 total - 2 x M2 (black)

Steps to replace the keyboard:

  1. Place the Adder WS lid-side-down.
  2. Remove the 2 keyboard screws, indicated by the small keyboard icons.

Keyboard screws

  1. Open the Adder WS and place it on its side.
  2. Push the screwdriver into the keyboard push point until the keyboard pops out.

Keyboard push point

  1. Set the Adder WS down, then starting from the top side, pull the keyboard loose.

Keyboard removal

  1. Flip the keyboard over onto the trackpad.

Keyboard flip

  1. Pull the large ribbon cable out of the connector.
  2. The small ribbon cables have latches. Gently pull the latches from both sides and remove the ribbon cables.
  3. Remove the keyboard and replace it with the new one.
  4. Insert the large ribbon cable into the connector.
  5. Seat the small ribbon cables, then apply pressure equally to both sides of the connector to secure.
  6. Flip the keyboard over and press the bottom tabs of the keyboard into the case.
  7. Secure the keyboard by pressing down on the edges of the keyboard.
  8. Flip the Adder WS over.
  9. Replace the 2 screws holding the keyboard in place.
  10. Boot your Adder WS and confirm the keyboard is operational.

Removing the bottom cover:

Removing the cover is required to access the internal components. Prior to removing the cover, ensure the AC power is unplugged and all peripherals (including SD cards and USB drives) are unplugged or removed from the system.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 10 minutes
Difficulty: Medium
Screws: 14 total - 12 x M2 perimeter (black); 2 x M2 keyboard (black)

Steps to remove the bottom cover:

  1. Place the Adder WS lid-side down.
  2. Remove the external battery.
  3. Remove the keyboard.
  4. Remove the two screws underneath the keyboard labeled ‘M2’.

Under-keyboard screws

  1. Remove the 12 perimeter screws.

Bottom case screws

  1. The bottom cover will lift off, starting from the front corners working to the back near the hinges.

Steps to replace the bottom cover:

  1. Align the bottom cover to the case towards the back and hinges.
  2. Set the bottom cover along the edges and confirm the bottom cover is seated.
  3. Replace the 12 perimeter screws.
  4. Replace the 2 keyboard screws.

Replacing the RAM:

RAM acts as temporary storage for your computer. More RAM generally provides better performance. If you've purchased new RAM, need to replace your RAM, or are reseating your RAM, follow these steps.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 15 minutes
Difficulty: Medium

Steps to replace the RAM:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the bottom cover.
  2. Press the small tabs on both sides of the RAM simultaneously. The RAM should spring up to an angle.

RAM tabs

  1. Remove the RAM from the slot.
  2. Insert the new RAM (or reseat the existing RAM) by placing it in the keyed slot and pressing down on the RAM until it clicks into place.

Replacing an M.2/NVMe SSD:

M.2 SSDs offer, at minimum, SATA III speeds and performance in a package about the size of a stick of gum. NVMe M.2 SSDs offer even higher performance. The Adder WS supports two M.2 SSDs, size 2280, either M.2 SATA or NVMe M.2 PCIe Generation 3.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 5 minutes
Difficulty: Medium

Steps to replace the M.2 drive:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the bottom cover.
  2. Locate the M.2 drive (or slot.)

M.2 slots

  1. Unscrew the retainer screw opposite the M.2 slot.
  2. Remove the existing M.2 drive by pulling it out of the slot.
  3. Insert the new M.2 drive into the slot and hold it in place.
  4. Replace the retainer screw.

Replacing the cooling system:

If the CPU fan becomes noisy and cleaning it out doesn't fix the issue, you may need a new CPU fan. Contact Support to start a warranty claim or parts purchase.

In rare cases, or after several years, it may be necessary to apply new thermal paste between the CPU and the heatsink. Thermal paste helps facilitate effective heat transfer between the CPU and the cooling equipment. These instructions can also be used in the unlikely event your heatsink needs replacing.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 5 minutes
Difficulty: High

Steps to replace the fans/heatsink/thermal paste:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the bottom cover.
  2. Locate the CPU heatsink screws.

M.2 slots

  1. Remove the screws, starting with #10, then #9, and continue until you have removed #1.
  2. Carefully remove the heatsink/fans from the case.
  3. Using a paper towel, remove the existing thermal paste. You may also use a small amount of rubbing alcohol to remove excess or difficult-to-remove paste.
  4. After cleaning the CPU, GPU, and heatsink, apply a small line of thermal paste directly onto the CPU and GPU core.
  5. Carefully replace the heatsink.
  6. Replace the screws, starting with #1, then #2, and so on until #10. Do not fully tighten until sets #1-#3 and #4-#6 are in place, then fully tighten all screws for each set (#1-#3 and #4-#6).

Replacing the CMOS battery:

The CMOS battery supplies power to the Adder WS's CMOS chip. Changes you make to the BIOS and the comptuer's hardware clock are stored on the CMOS. If your Adder WS doesn't boot, you can reset the CMOS to force a low-level hardware reset. If your clock is constantly resetting, it's likely your CMOS battery needs replacing.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 5 minutes
Difficulty: Medium

Steps to replace the CMOS battery:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the keyboard.
  2. Locate the CMOS battery. Use a thin plastic tool to remove the CMOS battery.
  3. Power up the Adder WS. The system may power itself off and on after initial boot; this is normal behavior.
  4. Press F2 to enter the BIOS.
  5. Choose the "Setup Utility".
  6. Press F9 to Load Setup Defaults.
  7. Click on "Advanced" in the left menu.
  8. Choose "Advanced Chipset Control".
  9. Choose "ME State" and set this option to "Disabled".
  10. Press F10 to save and resume normal boot.

Replacing the external battery

The battery provides primary power whenever the system is unplugged.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 5 minutes
Difficulty: Easy

Steps to replace the external battery

  1. Remove the two screws that hold the battery and then remove the battery.
  2. Place the new battery in and then add the two screws back.

Replacing the wireless card

Your Adder WS's WiFi and Bluetooth are both handled by the same module. It is a standard M.2 2230 slot with PCIe and USB interfaces (A Key).

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 5 minutes
Difficulty: Medium

Steps to replace the WiFi/Bluetooth module

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the bottom cover.
  2. Locate the wireless card.
  3. Gently remove the two antennas by pulling them up and away from the wireless card.
  4. Remove the retaining screw opposite the M.2 slot.
  5. Remove the wireless card from the M.2 slot.
  6. Insert the new wireless card into the M.2 slot.
  7. Replace the retaining screw.
  8. Attach the two antennas by aligning the circular fitting and pressing onto the wireless card. The connector will snap into place. Use caution when attaching the connectors; the pins can bend, break, or snap.

Adder WS (UEFI Setup & Specifications)

When starting your Adder WS, it takes a few seconds to conduct a quick check of the components. As it proceeds, it will notify you if anything is wrong. Any issues that prevent the system from booting will be displayed and you will be prompted to enter the Setup. If no problems are detected, your Adder WS will load GRUB for Ubuntu or systemd-boot for Pop!_OS.

  • For Setup/BIOS, hold F2 while booting.
  • For boot options, hold F7 while booting and choose your preferred boot device.

Updating the BIOS

BIOS/UEFI firmware updates and instructions are sent out as needed. The firmware manager will notify you if a firmware update is available for your Adder WS. You can also check for updates under Settings -> Devices -> Firmware in Pop!_OS, or using the Firmware Manager app in Ubuntu.

BIOS overview

The BIOS/UEFI Setup utility allows you to make low-level changes to your Adder WS. It's not recommended to make changes unless the settings are provided by Support or you understand what you're changing.

Setup Utility

  • SATA Port #: Opens the sub-menu to show the configuration of a SATA device on the SATA ports.

  • OffBoard SATA/NVMe Controller Configuration: Opens the sub-menu to show the configuration of any devices on the offboard SATA/NVMe controller, if installed.

  • System Date/Time: Sets the system date/time using the hardware clock.

  • System/Extended Memory: Displays information about the amount of RAM installed.

  • ME FW/MB Series/BIOS Version/KB/EC Firmware Rev: Displays information about the BIOS version(s).

  • MAC Address: Displays the network adapter's hardware address.

Advanced

  • Advanced Chipset Control: Options for FlexiCharger, GPU Performance Scaling, Intel Speed Shift Technology, VT-d, UEFI OS Fast Boot, Software Guard Extensions (SGX), ME State, HeadPhone PC Beep Sound Support.

    • FlexiCharger: Options to enable/disable FlexiCharger. FlexiCharger will not start charging the battery unless it is below the lower threshold, and will stop charging the battery at the upper threshold. Using FlexiCharger for extended periods of time will decrease the battery indicator's accuracy.

    • GPU Performance Scaling: NVIDIA GPU Performance Scaling Support. Disabling this may cause issues with booting.

    • Intel Speed Shift Technology: Enabling will expose the CPPCv2 interface to allow for hardware controlled P-states (power states.)

    • VT-d: Enable/disable Intel Virtualization Technology for Directed I/O. Extends Intel Virtualization Technology (VT) by providing hardware assets for virtual hypervisors.

    • UEFI OS Fast Boot: When enabled, the system firmware does not initialize the keyboard or check for the firmware menu key.

    • Software Guard Extensions (SGX): Enable or disable Intel SGX (Software Guard Extensions.)

    • ME State: Intel Management Engine. Recommended to Disable.

    • Headphone PC Beep Sound Support: If disabled, there will be no alarm beep sound at boot time though the headphones.

  • Thunderbolt(TM) Configuration:

    • Discrete Thunderbolt(TM) Support: Enable or disable Thunderbolt(TM) Support.

    • Security Level: Security level selection for Thunderbolt(TM).

  • OverClocking Performance Menu: Memory overclocking options.

    • Memory: Select the DIMM timing profile. For 3000MHz memory, use the XMP1 profile.
  • SATA Mode: The SATA (Seral ATA) controller is designed to operate in AHCI (Advanced Host Controller Interface) mode only.

  • Power on boot beep: Enable/disable a beep as the computer starts up.

  • Battery low alarm beep: Enable/disable a beep when the battery is critically low.

Security

  • Set Supervisor Password: Sets a password for the Setup Utility. This does not affect access to the computer or installed OS, only the BIOS/UEFI.

  • TPM Configuration: Trusted Computing settings.

    • Security Device Support: Enables or disables BIOS support for the TPM 2.0 security device.

Administer Secure Boot

  • Secure Boot: Enables support for Secure Boot. This is not recommended or required for Ubuntu/Pop!_OS.

Boot

  • EFI: Sets the boot order and chooses which boot devices are enabled.

  • UEFI Setting: Contains other settings regarding boot devices.

    • Network Stack: Enables or disables support for Intel PXE network boot.

    • IPv4 PXE Support: Allow PXE booting using IPv4.

    • IPv6 PXE Support: Allow PXE booting using IPv6.

Specifications

  • Processors:

    • Intel® CoreTM i7-9750H (4.1GHz): 2.6 up to 4.50GHz - 12MB Cache – 6 Cores – 12 Threads

    • Intel® CoreTM i9-9980HK (4.1GHz): 2.4 up to 5.0GHz - 16MB Cache – 8 Cores – 12 Threads

  • Display: 15.6” 4K (3840x2160) OLED Glossy

  • Memory:

    • Dual Channel DDR4
    • Two 260-pin SO-DIMM sockets
    • Supports DDR4 2666MHz memory modules (real operational frequency depends on the FSB of the processor.)
    • Memory expandable up to 64GB (compatible with 8GB/16GB/32GB modules.)
  • Graphics: NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2070

  • Storage:

    • Two M.2 SSD 2280 slots, supporting SATA and PCIe Gen3x4
    • One 2.5" 7mm SATA slot
  • Audio:

    • High Definition audio interface
    • S/PDIF Digital output
    • Built-in Array Microphone
    • Two built-in speakers
    • SoundBlasterX® Pro-Gaming 360° DAC
  • Touchpad & Keyboard:

    • ClickPad with multi-touch gesture and scrolling functionality
    • A4-size isolated keyboard
  • Webcam: 720p HD Video Camera with USB interface

  • Interfaces:

    • 1 HDMI (with HDCP)
    • 1 Mini DisplayPort 1.3
    • 1 DisplayPort 1.3 over USB 3.1 Gen 2 (Type-C)
    • 1 USB 3.1 Gen 2 / ThunderboltTM 3 Port (Type-C)
    • 3 USB 3.0 Ports (Type A, 1x powered USB port, AC/DC)
    • 1 2-in-1 Audio Jack (Microphone + S/PDIF Optical output)
    • 1 2-in-1 Audio Jack (Headphone + Microphone)
    • 1 RJ-45 LAN (10/100/1000Mbps)
  • Card Reader: Embedded Multi-in-1 Card Reader, supporting SD/Mini SD/SDHC/SDXC up to UHS-II/MMC/RS MMC.

  • M.2 Slots:

    • **Slot 1:**​ for M.2 2230 WLAN combo module with PCIe & USB interfaces (A Key).
    • Slot 2: for SSD M.2 2280 card with SATA/PCIe Gen 3 x4 Interface (M Key).
    • Slot 3: for SSD M.2 2280 card with SATA/PCIe Gen 3 x4 Interface (M Key).
  • Network:

    • Built-in 10/100/1000Mb Base-TX Ethernet LAN
    • Intel® Dual Band Wireless-AC 9560 (2*2 802.11 a/c) WLAN + Bluetooth M.2 2230 Combo Module (867Mbps)
  • Power and battery:

    • Full Range AC/DC Adapter
    • AC input 100 - 240V, 50 - 60Hz,
    • DC Output 19.5V, 11.8A (230Watts)
    • Embedded smart Lithium-Ion battery pack (62WH)
  • Security:

    • Security (Kensington® Type) Lock Slot
    • Disabled ME
    • BIOS/UEFI Password
    • Trusted Platform Module 2.0 (disabled by default)
  • Operating System: Pop!_OS or Ubuntu

  • LED Indicators: Power/Suspend, Battery, HDD, Airplane Mode, Camera

  • Environmental:

    • Temperature:
      • Operating: 5°C - 35°C
      • Non-operating: -20°C - 60°C
    • Relative humidity:
      • Operating: 20% - 80%
      • Non-operating: 10% - 90%
  • Dimensions & Weight:

    • Height x Width x Depth: 14.13" x 10.16 " x 1.18"
    • 5.51lbs, 2.50kg base weight, varies with configuration.

Bonobo WS (bonw14)

Bonobo WS

The System76 Bonobo WS is a laptop with the following specifications:

  • CPU
  • Chipset
  • Firmware
  • EC
  • GPU
    • NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2080 Super
      • or NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2070 Super
      • or NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2060
    • eDP 17.3" 1920x1080@144Hz LCD
      • or eDP 17.3" 3840x2160@60Hz LCD
    • HDMI, 2 x Mini DisplayPort 1.4, and 2 x DisplayPort 1.4 over USB-C
  • Memory
    • Up to 128GB (4x32GB) quad-channel DDR4 SO-DIMMs @ 3200 MHz
  • Networking
    • Gigabit Ethernet
    • M.2 PCIe/CNVi WiFi/Bluetooth
      • Intel Wi-Fi 6 AX200/AX201
  • Power
    • 2 x 280W (20V, 14A) AC adapter
    • 97Wh 8-cell Lithium-Ion battery
  • Sound
    • Internal speakers (stereo + subwoofer) & microphone
    • Combined headphone & microphone 3.5mm jack
    • Combined microphone & S/PDIF (optical) 3.5mm jack
    • HDMI, Mini DisplayPort, USB-C DisplayPort audio
  • Storage
    • 4x M.2
      • 2x PCIe NVMe or SATA
      • 1x PCIe only
      • 1x SATA only
    • SD card reader
  • USB
    • 3x USB 3.2 Gen 2 Type-A
    • 1x USB Type-C with Thunderbolt 3
    • 1x USB 3.2 Gen 2 Type-C with DisplayPort 1.4
    • 1x USB 3.2 Gen 2x2 Type-C
  • Dimensions
    • 4.343cm x 39.903cm x 31.902cm, 3.80kg

Bonobo WS (External Overview)

Left side overview:

Left Ports

Right side overview:

Right Ports

Front side overview:

Front Ports

Back side overview:

Back Ports

Keyboard Shortcuts

The Bonobo WS has the following actions available using the Fn and Function keys:

KeyShortcutAction
Fn-F1Fn+F1Toggle trackpad
Fn-F2Fn+F2Toggle built-in LCD
Fn-F3Fn+F3Mute
Fn-F5Fn+F5Volume down
Fn-F6Fn+F6Volume up
Fn-F7Fn+F7Toggle displays
Fn-F8Fn+F8Screen brightness down
Fn-F9Fn+F9Screen brightness up
Fn-F10Fn+F10Toggle webcam
Fn-F11Fn+F11Toggle airplane mode
Fn-F12Fn+F12Suspend
Fn-F12Fn+`Play/Pause
Fn-*Fn+*Toggle keyboard backlight
/Fn+/Cycle keyboard color
-Fn+-Decrease keyboard brightness
+Fn++Increase keyboard brightness

LED indicators

The Bonobo WS has the following LED indicators:

IconColorDescription
Power LEDOrangePowered off, DC power plugged in
GreenPowered on
Blinking greenSleeping (suspended)
Battery LEDOrangeBattery charging
GreenBattery fully charged
Blinking orangeBattery critically low
Storage LEDGreenStorage drive activity

Bonobo WS (Internal Overview)

Bottom components and connectors:

Internal Components

  • LED bar is highlighted in purple
  • Fan/heatsink module is highlighted in white
  • Keyboard screwholes are highlighted in red
  • Fan connectors are highlighted in pink
  • M.2 SSDs are highlighted in cyan
  • RAM (slots 1 and 3) are highlighted in green
  • CMOS battery is highlighted in yellow
  • Battery slot is highlighted in orange
  • Speakers are highlighted in olive

Under-keyboard components and connectors:

Under-Keyboard Connectors

  • Keyboard connector is highlighted in red
  • Keyboard backlight connectors are highlighted in light green
  • RAM (slots 2 and 4) are highlighted in cyan
  • Wireless card is highlighted in orange
  • 3.5mm audio jack connector is highlighted in maroon
  • SD card slot connector is highlighted in yellow
  • Power button/LED connector is highlighted in pink
  • Front LED connector is highlighted in navy
  • Touchpad connector is highlighted in purple
  • Keyboard & keyboard backlight board to motherboard connector is highlighted in olive

Bonobo WS (Parts & Repairs)

Many components in your Bonobo WS can be upgraded or replaced as necessary. Follow these step-by-step guides for instructions:

Removing the bottom cover:

Removing the cover is required to access the internal components. Prior to removing the cover, ensure the AC power is unplugged and all peripherals (including SD cards and USB drives) are unplugged or removed from the system.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 5 minutes
Difficulty: Easy

Steps to remove the bottom cover:

  1. Remove the 8 bottom panel screws (highlighted red below.)

Bottom panel screws

  1. Slide the bottom panel away from the battery slot while lifting it up and off of the case (the panel detaches at a slight angle.)

Removing the battery:

The battery provides primary power whenever the system is unplugged.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 5 minutes
Difficulty: Easy

Steps to remove the battery:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the bottom cover. (Removing the bottom cover is optional, but can make removing the battery significantly easier.)
  2. Slide the locking battery slider (highlighted green below) to the "unlocked" position.

Battery sliders

  1. Hold the spring-loaded battery slider (highlighted yellow above) in the "unlocked" position.
  2. Starting from the top, lift the battery up and out of the slot.

Replacing the keyboard:

The keyboard can be replaced using the instructions below.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 10 minutes
Difficulty: Medium

Steps to replace the keyboard:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the bottom cover and remove the battery.
  2. Remove the two keyboard screws (circled yellow below.)

Keyboard screws

  1. Open the lid slightly and place the machine on its side.
  2. Push the screwdriver into the keyboard push point (highlighted cyan above) until the keyboard pops out.

Keyboard push point

  1. Set the Bonobo WS back down and raise the keyboard away from the chassis. The largest ribbon cable (highlighted red below) is for the keyboard, while the two smaller ribbon cables (highlighted green) are for the keyboard backlight.

Keyboard ribbons

  1. Flip the black latches upwards to free the ribbon cables.
  2. Pull the ribbon cables out of the connectors.
  3. Remove the keyboard and replace it with the new one.
  4. Carefully slide all three ribbon cables into their connectors.
  5. Flip the black latches back into place to secure the ribbon cables.
  6. Place the keyboard back into position, starting with the tabs on the bottom edge.
  7. Secure the rest of the keyboard by pressing down on each of its edges.
  8. Turn the machine lid-side down again.
  9. Replace the 2 keyboard screws, the battery, and the bottom panel.
  10. Boot the machine and confirm the keyboard and keyboard backlight are operational.

Replacing the RAM:

The Bonobo WS 14 supports up to 128GB (4x32GB) of DDR4 SO-DIMMs running at 3200MHz. If you've purchased new RAM, need to replace your RAM, or are reseating your RAM, follow these steps.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 10 minutes
Difficulty: Medium

Steps to replace the RAM:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the bottom cover and remove the battery.
  2. Two RAM slots are located on the bottom of the machine, while two are underneath the keyboard. If necessary, follow the steps above to remove the keyboard.
  3. Press the small tabs on both sides of the RAM simultaneously. The RAM should spring up to an angle.

RAM removal

  1. Remove the RAM from the slot.
  2. Insert the new RAM (or reseat the existing RAM) by placing it in the keyed slot and pressing down on the RAM until it clicks into place.

Replacing an M.2/NVMe SSD:

This model supports up to four M.2 SSDs. All M.2 slots are size 2280.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 10 minutes
Difficulty: Easy

Steps to replace the M.2 drive:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the bottom cover and remove the battery.
  2. If working with any of the PCIe NVMe-capable slots, unscrew the three screws (highlighted red below) and remove the black metal cover from above those three slots.

M.2 cover

  1. Unscrew the retainer screw opposite the M.2 slot.

M.2 slots

In the above photo, the red slot is SATA only, the yellow slot is PCIe NVMe only, and the two orange slots work with SATA or PCIe NVMe.

  1. Remove the existing M.2 drive by pulling it out of the slot.
  2. Insert the new M.2 drive into the slot and hold it in place.
  3. Replace the retainer screw.

Replacing the wireless card:

Your Bonobo WS's WiFi and Bluetooth are both handled by the same module. It is a standard M.2 2230 slot with PCIe and USB interfaces (A Key).

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 10 minutes
Difficulty: Medium

Steps to replace the WiFi/Bluetooth module:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the bottom cover, remove the battery, and remove the keyboard.
  2. Locate the wireless module. Remove any clear tape that is securing the wires.

Wireless card

  1. Gently remove the two antennas (highlighted red above) by pulling them up and away from the wireless card.
  2. Remove the retaining screw opposite the M.2 slot, highlighted green above.
  3. The wireless card will pop up at an angle. Remove the card from the M.2 slot.
  4. Insert the new wireless card into the M.2 slot at an angle.
  5. Replace the retaining screw.
  6. Attach the two antennas by aligning the circular fittings and pressing onto the wireless card. The connectors will snap into place. Use caution when attaching the connectors; the pins can bend, break, or snap.
  7. Replace the keyboard, battery, and bottom cover.

Replacing the CMOS battery:

The CMOS battery supplies power to the system's CMOS chip. UEFI settings and the comptuer's hardware clock are stored on the CMOS. If your system doesn't boot, you can reset the CMOS to force a low-level hardware reset. If your clock is constantly resetting, it's likely your CMOS battery needs to be replaced.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 10 minutes
Difficulty: Easy

Steps to replace the CMOS battery:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the bottom cover and remove the main battery.
  2. Unplug the white connector attaching the CMOS battery to the motherboard (highlighted green below.)

CMOS battery

  1. If you are replacing the CMOS battery, pull it away from the adhesive holding it to the case.
  2. To clear the CMOS, open the lid of the machine and hold down the power button for at least 15 seconds to discharge any residual energy in the system.
  3. Re-connect the CMOS battery, replace the main battery, and replace the bottom panel.
  4. Power up the Bonobo WS. The system may power itself off and on after initial boot; this is normal behavior when the CMOS has been reset.

Replacing the cooling system:

The Bonobo WS 12 has a single heatsink assembly with two fans for the CPU and GPU.

If the fans become noisy and cleaning them out doesn't fix the issue, you may need a new fan. Contact Support to start a warranty claim or parts purchase.

Depending on your climate and the age of the machine, it may be necessary to apply new thermal paste between the CPU/GPU and the heatsink. Thermal paste helps facilitate effective heat transfer between the CPU/GPU and the cooling equipment. These instructions can also be used in the unlikely event your heatsink needs replacing.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver, thermal paste
Time estimate: 20 minutes
Difficulty: High

Steps to replace the heatsink/thermal paste:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the bottom cover and remove the battery.
  2. Remove the three LED bar screws (highlighted green below).

LED bar screws and connector

  1. Raise the black latch on the ribbon cable connector (highlighted red above) to free the ribbon cable, then remove the ribbon cable; gently peel the cable away from any adhesive present.
  2. Remove the LED light bar.
  3. Remove the black metal M.2 cover. Removing the M.2 cover is optional, but makes it easier to free the fan wires later.
  4. Remove the eight fan screws (highlighted yellow below.)

Thermal screws

  1. Remove the seven spring-loaded heatsink screws (highlighted cyan above) in reverse order, starting with #7, then #6, and continuing until you have removed #1. Keep the four GPU heatsink screws separated from the three CPU heatsink screws; they are different sizes.
  2. Unplug the white fan connectors from the black sockets on the motherboard (highlighted pink above.) Remove any clear tape holding the fan wires in place.
  3. Remove the heatsink/fans from the case, being careful not to bend the heatsink pipes. It may take some pressure to break the seal of the thermal paste.
  4. Using a paper towel, remove the existing thermal paste. You may also use a small amount of rubbing alcohol if the old paste is dried or difficult to remove.

Thermal paste removal

Heatsink assembly

  1. After cleaning the CPU, GPU, and heatsink, apply a small line of thermal paste directly onto the CPU and GPU chips.

Thermal paste application

  1. Carefully replace the heatsink.
  2. Replace the spring-loaded heatsink screws, starting with #1, then #2, and so on until #7. The three screws over the CPU are slightly thicker, while the four screws over the GPU are slightly thinner.
  3. Replace the eight fan screws.
  4. Plug the white fan connectors back into the motherboard.

Replacing the CPU:

The Bonobo WS uses an LGA 1200 socket for the CPU. If you are upgrading or replacing your CPU, follow the steps below.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 25 minutes
Difficulty: High

Steps to replace the CPU:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the bottom cover, remove the battery, and remove the heatsink.
  2. Lift up the lever holding the CPU cover in place, highlighted red below.

CPU lever (lowered)

CPU lever (raised)

  1. Flip over the CPU cover.

CPU cover

  1. Carefully lift the old CPU out of the socket. Caution: Be careful not to bend any of the gold pins in the CPU socket, and do not touch the gold plates on the bottom of the CPU.
  2. Carefully place the new CPU into the socket. One of the corners of the socket and CPU are marked with a triangle; be sure to match the triangles to the same corner so the CPU is placed in the correct orientation (highlighted yellow below.)

Triangle on socket

  1. Once the CPU is placed in the correct orientation, replace the CPU cover and lower the lever back down; lowering the lever may take some force.

CPU lever (lowering)

  1. Replace the thermal paste, heatsink/fan(s), battery, and bottom panel.

Replacing the GPU:

The Bonobo WS uses an MXM III slot for the GPU. If you are upgrading or replacing your GPU, follow the steps below.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 25 minutes
Difficulty: High

Steps to replace the GPU:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the bottom cover, remove the battery, and remove the heatsink.
  2. Unplug the power cable, highlighted cyan below.

GPU screws and connector

  1. Unscrew the two screws, highlighted red above.
  2. Raise the GPU to an angle and remove it from the slot.

GPU raised at an angle

  1. Place the new GPU (or reseat the existing GPU) into the slot at an angle, then hold it down and replace the screws and connector.
  2. Replace the thermal paste, heatsink/fan(s), battery, and bottom panel.

Darter Pro (darp6)

Darter Pro

The System76 Darter Pro is a laptop with the following specifications:

  • CPU
  • Firmware
  • EC
    • ITE IT8587 running System76 EC or non-open EC firmware
  • GPU
    • Intel UHD Graphics 620
    • eDP 15.6" 1920x1080 LCD
    • HDMI, Mini DisplayPort 1.2, and DisplayPort 1.3 over USB-C
  • Memory
    • Up to 64 (2x32GB) dual-channel DDR4 SO-DIMMs @ 2666 MHz
  • Networking
    • Gigabit Ethernet
    • M.2 PCIe/CNVi WiFi/Bluetooth
      • Intel Wi-Fi 6 AX200/AX201
      • or Intel Wireless-AC 9560
  • Power
    • 65W (19V, 3.42A) AC adapter
    • 54.5Wh 4-cell Lithium-Ion battery
  • Sound
    • Internal speakers & microphone
    • Combined headphone & microphone 3.5mm jack
    • Combined microphone & S/PDIF (optical) 3.5mm jack
    • HDMI, Mini DisplayPort, USB-C DisplayPort audio
  • Storage
    • 1x M.2 (PCIe NVMe or SATA)
    • SD card reader
  • USB
    • 2x USB 3.0 Type-A
    • 1x USB 2.0 Type-A
    • 1x USB Type-C with Thunderbolt 3
  • Dimensions
    • 1.98cm x 36.04cm x 24.46cm, 1.6kg

Darter Pro (External Overview)

Left side overview:

Left Ports

Right side overview:

Right Ports

Front side overview:

Front Ports

Back side overview:

Back Ports

Keyboard Shortcuts

The Darter Pro has the following actions available using the Fn and Function keys:

KeyShortcutAction
Fn-F1Fn+F1Toggle trackpad
Fn-F2Fn+F2Toggle built-in LCD
Fn-F3Fn+F3Mute
Fn-F5Fn+F5Volume down
Fn-F6Fn+F6Volume up
Fn-F7Fn+F7Toggle displays
Fn-F8Fn+F8Screen brightness down
Fn-F9Fn+F9Screen brightness up
Fn-F10Fn+F10Toggle webcam
Fn-F11Fn+F11Toggle airplane mode
Fn-F12Fn+F12Suspend
Fn-F12Fn+`Play/Pause
Fn-*Fn+*Toggle keyboard backlight
/Fn+/Cycle keyboard color
-Fn+-Decrease keyboard brightness
+Fn++Increase keyboard brightness

LED indicators

The Darter Pro has the following LED indicators:

IconColorDescription
Power LEDOrangePowered off, DC power plugged in
GreenPowered on
Blinking greenSleeping (suspended)
Battery LEDOrangeBattery charging
GreenBattery fully charged
Blinking orangeBattery critically low
Airplane LEDGreenAirplane mode is on
(WiFi/Bluetooth disabled)
Storage LEDGreenStorage drive activity

Darter Pro (Internal Overview)

Bottom components and connectors:

Internal Components

  • RAM slots are highlighted in dark green
  • M.2 SSD is highlighted in purple
  • Wireless card is highlighted in yellow
  • CMOS battery connector is highlighted in pink
  • CMOS battery is highlighted in white
  • Fan/heatsink module is highlighted in navy
  • Fan connector is highlighted in light red
  • Webcam/microphone connector is highlighted in orange
  • LCD panel connector is highlighted in light green
  • Main battery connector is highlighted in cyan
  • Main battery is highlighted in brown
  • Speaker connectors are highlighted in maroon
  • Speakers are highlighted in olive
  • Touchpad connector is underneath the battery, highlighted in dashed red
  • Touchpad button connector is highlighted in dashed green
  • Front LED connector is highlighted in dashed yellow

Under-keyboard components and connectors:

Under-Keyboard Connectors

  • Keyboard connector is highlighted in cyan
  • Keyboard backlight connector is highlighted in green
  • Power button/LED connector is highlighted in red
  • Left-side USB connector is highlighted in yellow
  • Bottom panel screws are highlighted in pink

Darter Pro (Parts & Repairs)

Many components in your Darter Pro can be upgraded or replaced as necessary. Follow these step-by-step guides for instructions:

Replacing the keyboard:

The keyboard can be replaced using the instructions below. Removing the keyboard is required for removing the bottom panel.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 5 minutes
Difficulty: Easy

Steps to replace the keyboard:

  1. Remove the two keyboard screws (highlighted red below).

Keyboard screws

  1. Open the lid slightly and place the machine on its side.
  2. Push the screwdriver into the keyboard push point (highlighted cyan above) until the keyboard pops out.

Keyboard push point

  1. Set the machine back down and raise the keyboard away from the chassis. The larger ribbon cable is for the keyboard, while the smaller ribbon cable is for the keyboard backlight.

Keyboard ribbons

Note: Unplugging the ribbon cables is not required to remove the bottom cover.

  1. Flip the black latches upwards to free the ribbon cables.
  2. Pull the ribbon cables out of the connectors.
  3. Remove the keyboard and replace it with the new one.
  4. Carefully slide both ribbon cables into their connectors.
  5. Flip the black latches back into place to secure the ribbon cables.
  6. Place the keyboard back into position, starting with the tabs on the bottom edge.
  7. Secure the rest of the keyboard by pressing down on each of its edges.
  8. Turn the machine lid-side down again and replace the two keyboard screws.

Removing the bottom cover:

Removing the cover is required to access the internal components. Prior to removing the cover, ensure the AC power is unplugged and all peripherals (including SD cards and USB drives) are unplugged or removed from the system.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 7 minutes
Difficulty: Easy

Steps to remove the bottom cover:

  1. Remove the 12 bottom panel screws.

Bottom panel screws

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the keyboard.
  2. Remove the three under-keyboard screws holding the bottom panel in place from above, highlighted cyan below.

Under-keyboard screws

  1. Lift the bottom panel off, starting from the hinges in the back.

Removing the battery:

The battery provides primary power whenever the system is unplugged.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 10 minutes
Difficulty: Easy

Steps to remove the battery:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the keyboard and remove the bottom cover.
  2. Remove the seven battery screws, highlighted red below.

Battery screws

  1. Unplug the battery connector (highlighted green above) and lift the battery out of the chassis.

Replacing the RAM:

The Darter Pro 6 supports up to 64GB (2x32GB) of DDR4 SO-DIMMs running at 2666MHz. If you've purchased new RAM, need to replace your RAM, or are reseating your RAM, follow these steps.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 10 minutes
Difficulty: Easy

Steps to replace the RAM:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the keyboard and remove the bottom cover.
  2. Press the small tabs on both sides of the RAM simultaneously. The RAM should spring up to an angle.

RAM slots

  1. Remove the RAM from the slot.
  2. Insert the new RAM (or reseat the existing RAM) by placing it in the keyed slot and pressing down until it clicks into place.

Replacing an M.2/NVMe SSD:

This model supports one M.2 SSD of size 2280, either SATA III or PCIe NVMe Generation 3.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 10 minutes
Difficulty: Easy

Steps to replace the M.2 drive:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the keyboard and remove the bottom cover.
  2. Unscrew the retainer screw opposite the M.2 slot.

M.2 slot

  1. Remove the existing M.2 drive by pulling it out of the slot.
  2. Insert the new M.2 drive into the slot and hold it in place.
  3. Replace the retainer screw.
  4. If a square brace was present on the old drive, transfer it to the new drive.

Replacing the wireless card:

Your Darter Pro's WiFi and Bluetooth are both handled by the same module. It is a standard M.2 2230 slot with PCIe and USB interfaces (A Key).

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 12 minutes
Difficulty: Medium

Steps to replace the WiFi/Bluetooth module:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the keyboard and remove the bottom cover.
  2. Locate the wireless module. Remove any clear tape that is securing the wires.

Wireless card

  1. Gently remove the two antennas (highlighted red above) by pulling them up and away from the wireless card.
  2. Remove the retaining screw opposite the M.2 slot, highlighted green above.
  3. The wireless card will pop up at an angle. Remove the card from the M.2 slot.
  4. Insert the new wireless card into the M.2 slot at an angle.
  5. Replace the retaining screw.
  6. Attach the two antennas by aligning the circular fittings and pressing onto the wireless card. The connectors will snap into place. Use caution when attaching the connectors; the pins can bend, break, or snap.

Replacing the CMOS battery:

The CMOS battery supplies power to the system's CMOS chip. UEFI settings and the comptuer's hardware clock are stored on the CMOS. If your system doesn't boot, you can reset the CMOS to force a low-level hardware reset. If your clock is constantly resetting, it's likely your CMOS battery needs to be replaced.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 10 minutes
Difficulty: Easy

Steps to replace the CMOS battery:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the keyboard and remove the bottom cover.
  2. Unplug the white connector attaching the CMOS battery to the motherboard (highlighted green below.)

CMOS battery

  1. If you are replacing the CMOS battery, pull it away from the adhesive holding it to the case.
  2. To clear the CMOS, disconnect the main battery, open the lid of the machine, and hold down the power button for at least 15 seconds to discharge any residual energy in the system.
  3. Re-connect the CMOS battery and the main battery, and replace the bottom panel and keyboard.
  4. Power up the machine. The system may power itself off and on after initial boot; this is normal behavior when the CMOS has been reset.

Replacing the cooling system:

The Darter Pro 6 has a single fan and heatsink to cool the CPU. The fan and heatsink can be removed or replaced separately from one another.

If the fan becomes noisy and cleaning it out doesn't fix the issue, you may need a new fan. Contact Support to start a warranty claim or parts purchase.

Depending on your climate and the age of the machine, it may be necessary to apply new thermal paste between the CPU and the heatsink. Thermal paste helps facilitate effective heat transfer between the CPU and the cooling equipment. These instructions can also be used in the unlikely event your heatsink needs replacing.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver, thermal paste
Time estimate: 20 minutes
Difficulty: High

Steps to replace the fan:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the keyboard and remove the bottom cover.
  2. Remove the two fan screws, highlighted green below.

Thermal screws

  1. Unplug the black fan connector, highlighted cyan above. Remove any clear tape that may be holding the wires in place.
  2. Remove the fan from the system.

Steps to replace the heatsink/thermal paste:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the keyboard and remove the bottom cover.
  2. Remove the three heatsink screws (highlighted red above) in order, starting with #1, then #2, and finally #3.
  3. Remove the heatsink from the system, being careful not to bend the heatsink pipe. It may take some pressure to break the seal of the thermal paste.
  4. Using a paper towel, remove the existing thermal paste. You may also use a small amount of rubbing alcohol if the old paste is dried or difficult to remove.

Thermal paste removal

  1. After cleaning the CPU and heatsink, apply a small line of thermal paste directly onto the CPU chip.

Thermal paste application

  1. Carefully replace the heatsink.
  2. Replace the three heatsink screws, starting with #1, then #2, and finally #3.

Galago Pro (galp4)

Galago Pro

The System76 Galago Pro is a laptop with the following specifications:

  • CPU
  • Firmware
  • EC
    • ITE IT8587 running System76 EC or non-open EC firmware
  • GPU
    • Intel UHD Graphics 620
    • eDP 14.1" 1920x1080 LCD
    • HDMI, Mini DisplayPort 1.2, and DisplayPort over USB-C
  • Memory
    • Up to 64 (2x32GB) dual-channel DDR4 SO-DIMMs @ 2666 MHz
  • Networking
    • Gigabit Ethernet
    • M.2 PCIe/CNVi WiFi/Bluetooth
      • Intel Wi-Fi 6 AX200/AX201
      • or Intel Wireless-AC 9560
  • Power
    • 40W (19V, 2.1A) AC adapter
    • 35.3Wh 3-cell Lithium-Ion battery
  • Sound
    • Internal speakers & microphone
    • 3.5mm headphone jack
    • 3.5mm microphone jack
    • HDMI, Mini DisplayPort, USB-C DisplayPort audio
  • Storage
    • 1x M.2 (PCIe NVMe or SATA) SSD
    • 1x 2.5" 7mm SATA drive
    • SD card reader
  • USB
    • 2x USB 3.1 (Gen 1) Type-A
    • 1x USB Type-C with Thunderbolt 3
  • Dimensions
    • 1.8cm x 33cm x 22.5cm, 1.3kg

Galago Pro (External Overview)

Left side overview:

Left Ports

Right side overview:

Right Ports

Front side overview:

Front Ports

Back side overview:

Back Ports

Keyboard Shortcuts

The Galago Pro has the following actions available using the Fn and Function keys:

KeyShortcutAction
Fn-F1Fn+F1Toggle trackpad
Fn-F2Fn+F2Toggle built-in LCD
Fn-F3Fn+F3Mute
Fn-F4Fn+F4Cycle keyboard backlight brightness
Fn-F5Fn+F5Volume down
Fn-F6Fn+F6Volume up
Fn-F7Fn+F7Toggle displays
Fn-F8Fn+F8Screen brightness down
Fn-F9Fn+F9Screen brightness up
Fn-F10Fn+F10Toggle webcam
Fn-F11Fn+F11Toggle airplane mode
Fn-F12Fn+F12Suspend
Fn-F12Fn+`Play/Pause

LED indicators

The Galago Pro has the following LED indicators:

IconColorDescription
Power LEDOrangePowered off, DC power plugged in
GreenPowered on
Blinking greenSleeping (suspended)
Battery LEDOrangeBattery charging
GreenBattery fully charged
Blinking orangeBattery critically low
Airplane LEDGreenAirplane mode is on
(WiFi/Bluetooth disabled)
Storage LEDGreenStorage drive activity

Galago Pro (Internal Overview)

Bottom components and connectors:

Internal Components

  • RAM slots are highlighted in dark green
  • M.2 SSD is highlighted in purple
  • Wireless card is highlighted in yellow
  • CMOS battery connector is highlighted in solid pink
  • CMOS battery is highlighted in dashed pink
  • Fan/heatsink module is highlighted in navy
  • Fan connector is highlighted in light red
  • Webcam/microphone connector is highlighted in orange
  • LCD panel connector is highlighted in light green
  • Main battery connector is highlighted in cyan
  • Main battery is highlighted in brown
  • 2.5" drive is highlighted in white
  • Speaker connectors are highlighted in maroon
  • Speakers are highlighted in olive
  • Touchpad connectors are highlighted in dashed red
  • Front LED connector is highlighted in dashed yellow

Under-keyboard components and connectors:

Under-Keyboard Connectors

  • Keyboard connector is highlighted in cyan
  • Keyboard backlight connector is highlighted in green
  • Power button and left-side USB connector is highlighted in yellow
  • Bottom panel screws are highlighted in red

Galago Pro (Parts & Repairs)

Many components in your Galago Pro can be upgraded or replaced as necessary. Follow these step-by-step guides for instructions:

Replacing the keyboard:

The keyboard can be replaced using the instructions below. Removing the keyboard is required for removing the bottom panel.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 5 minutes
Difficulty: Easy

Steps to replace the keyboard:

  1. Remove the two keyboard screws, highlighted red below.

Keyboard screws

  1. Open the lid slightly and place the machine on its side.
  2. Push the screwdriver into the keyboard push point (highlighted blue above) until the keyboard pops out.

Keyboard push point

  1. Set the machine back down and raise the keyboard away from the chassis. The larger ribbon cable is for the keyboard, while the smaller ribbon cable is for the keyboard backlight.

Keyboard ribbons

Note: Unplugging the ribbon cables is not required to remove the bottom cover; the keyboard can be flipped over onto the touchpad without unplugging the ribbon cables.

  1. Flip the black latches away from the white connectors to free the ribbon cables.
  2. Pull the ribbon cables out of the connectors.
  3. Remove the keyboard and replace it with the new one.
  4. Carefully slide both ribbon cables into their connectors.
  5. Flip the black latches back into place to secure the ribbon cables.
  6. Place the keyboard back into position, starting with the tabs on the bottom edge.
  7. Secure the rest of the keyboard by pressing down on each of its edges.
  8. Turn the machine lid-side down again and replace the two keyboard screws.

Removing the bottom cover:

Removing the cover is required to access the internal components. Prior to removing the cover, ensure the AC power is unplugged and all peripherals (including SD cards and USB drives) are unplugged or removed from the system.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 7 minutes
Difficulty: Easy

Steps to remove the bottom cover:

  1. Remove the 12 bottom panel screws.

Bottom panel screws

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the keyboard.
  2. Remove the three under-keyboard screws holding the bottom panel in place from above, highlighted yellow below.

Under-keyboard screws

  1. Lift the bottom panel off, starting from the hinges in the back.

Removing the battery:

The battery provides primary power whenever the system is unplugged.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 10 minutes
Difficulty: Easy

Steps to remove the battery:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the keyboard and remove the bottom cover.
  2. Remove the five battery screws, highlighted cyan below.

Battery screws

  1. Unplug the battery connector (highlighted green above) and lift the battery out of the chassis.

Replacing the RAM:

The Galago Pro 4 supports up to 64GB (2x32GB) of DDR4 SO-DIMMs running at 2666MHz. If you've purchased new RAM, need to replace your RAM, or are reseating your RAM, follow these steps.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 10 minutes
Difficulty: Easy

Steps to replace the RAM:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the keyboard and remove the bottom cover.
  2. Press the small tabs on both sides of the RAM simultaneously. The RAM should spring up to an angle.

RAM slots

  1. Remove the RAM from the slot.
  2. Insert the new RAM (or reseat the existing RAM) by placing it in the keyed slot and pressing down until it clicks into place.

Replacing an M.2/NVMe SSD:

This model supports one M.2 SSD of size 2280, either SATA III or PCIe NVMe Generation 3.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 10 minutes
Difficulty: Easy

Steps to replace the M.2 drive:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the keyboard and remove the bottom cover.
  2. Unscrew the retainer screw opposite the M.2 slot.

M.2 slot

  1. Remove the existing M.2 drive by pulling it out of the slot.
  2. Insert the new M.2 drive into the slot and hold it in place.
  3. Replace the retainer screw.
  4. If a square brace was present on the old drive, transfer it to the new drive.

Replacing a 2.5" storage drive:

This model supports one 2.5" (7mm) SATA III SSD or HDD.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 10 minutes
Difficulty: Easy

Steps to replace the 2.5" storage drive:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the keyboard and remove the bottom cover.
  2. Lift the 2.5" drive out of the drive slot.

M.2 slot

  1. Unplug the SATA connector (highlighted green above) from the 2.5" drive.
  2. Plug the SATA connector into the new 2.5" drive and set the drive into the drive slot. (The drive is secured by the bottom cover.)

Replacing the wireless card:

Your Galago Pro's WiFi and Bluetooth are both handled by the same module. It is a standard M.2 2230 slot with PCIe and USB interfaces (A Key).

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 12 minutes
Difficulty: Medium

Steps to replace the WiFi/Bluetooth module:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the keyboard and remove the bottom cover.
  2. Locate the wireless module. Remove any clear tape that is securing the wires.

Wireless card

  1. Gently remove the two antennas (highlighted red above) by pulling them up and away from the wireless card.
  2. Remove the retaining screw opposite the M.2 slot, highlighted yellow above.
  3. The wireless card will pop up at an angle. Remove the card from the M.2 slot.
  4. Insert the new wireless card into the M.2 slot at an angle.
  5. Replace the retaining screw.
  6. Attach the two antennas by aligning the circular fittings and pressing onto the wireless card. The connectors will snap into place. Use caution when attaching the connectors; the pins can bend, break, or snap.

Replacing the CMOS battery:

The CMOS battery supplies power to the system's CMOS chip. UEFI settings and the comptuer's hardware clock are stored on the CMOS. If your system doesn't boot, you can reset the CMOS to force a low-level hardware reset. If your clock is constantly resetting, it's likely your CMOS battery needs to be replaced.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 10 minutes
Difficulty: Easy

Steps to replace the CMOS battery:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the keyboard and remove the bottom cover.
  2. Unplug the white connector attaching the CMOS battery to the motherboard (highlighted green below.)

CMOS battery

  1. If you are replacing the CMOS battery, pull it away from the adhesive holding it to the case.
  2. To clear the CMOS, disconnect the main battery, open the lid of the machine, and hold down the power button for at least 15 seconds to discharge any residual energy in the system.
  3. Re-connect the CMOS battery and the main battery, and replace the bottom panel and keyboard.
  4. Power up the machine. The system may power itself off and on after initial boot; this is normal behavior when the CMOS has been reset.

Replacing the cooling system:

The Galago Pro 4 has a single fan and heatsink to cool the CPU. The fan and heatsink can be removed or replaced separately from one another.

If the fan becomes noisy and cleaning it out doesn't fix the issue, you may need a new fan. Contact Support to start a warranty claim or parts purchase.

Depending on your climate and the age of the machine, it may be necessary to apply new thermal paste between the CPU and the heatsink. Thermal paste helps facilitate effective heat transfer between the CPU and the cooling equipment. These instructions can also be used in the unlikely event your heatsink needs replacing.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver, thermal paste
Time estimate: 20 minutes
Difficulty: High

Steps to replace the fan:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the keyboard and remove the bottom cover.
  2. Remove the two fan screws, highlighted green below.

Thermal screws

  1. Unplug the black fan connector, highlighted cyan above. Remove any clear tape that may be holding the wires in place.
  2. Remove the fan from the system.

Steps to replace the heatsink/thermal paste:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the keyboard and remove the bottom cover.
  2. Remove the three heatsink screws (highlighted red above) in order, starting with #1, then #2, and finally #3.
  3. Remove the heatsink from the system, being careful not to bend the heatsink pipe. It may take some pressure to break the seal of the thermal paste.
  4. Using a paper towel, remove the existing thermal paste. You may also use a small amount of rubbing alcohol if the old paste is dried or difficult to remove.

Thermal paste removal

  1. After cleaning the CPU and heatsink, apply a small line of thermal paste directly onto the CPU chip.

Thermal paste application

  1. Carefully replace the heatsink.
  2. Replace the three heatsink screws, starting with #1, then #2, and finally #3.

Gazelle (gaze15)

Gazelle

The System76 Gazelle is a laptop with the following specifications:

  • CPU
  • Firmware
    • System76 Firmware (non-open)
  • GPU
    • NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1650
      • 1 x HDMI, 1 x Mini DisplayPort 1.4
    • or NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1650 Ti
      • 1 x HDMI, 1 x Mini DisplayPort 1.4
    • or NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1660
      • 1 x HDMI, 1 x Mini DisplayPort 1.4, 1 x DisplayPort 1.4 over USB 3.1 Type-C
    • eDP 15.6" or 17.3" 1920x1080@120Hz LCD
  • Memory
    • Up to 64GB dual-channel DDR4 @ 2666 MHz, or
    • Up to 32GB dual-channel DDR4 @ 2933 MHz
  • Networking
    • Gigabit Ethernet
    • M.2 PCIe/CNVi WiFi/Bluetooth
      • Intel Wireless-AC 9560, or
      • Intel Wi-Fi 6 AX200/AX201
  • Power
    • 120W AC adapter
    • 48.96Wh battery
  • Sound
    • Internal speaker & microphone
    • Combined headphone/microphone 3.5-mm jack
    • HDMI, Mini DisplayPort, USB-C DisplayPort audio
  • Storage
    • M.2 PCIe/SATA SSD-1
    • M.2 PCIe SSD-2
    • 2.5" 7mm SATA drive bay
    • SD card reader
  • USB
    • GTX 1650 & 1650 Ti:
      • 1 x USB 2.0
      • 1 x USB 3.0
      • 1 x USB 3.1
      • 1 x USB 3.2 Type-C
    • GTX 1660 Ti:
      • 1 x USB 2.0
      • 1 x USB 3.0
      • 1 x USB 3.1
      • 1 x USB 3.2 Type-C with DisplayPort 1.4

Gazelle (External Overview)

Left side overview:

1650 & 1650 Ti

Left Ports

1660 Ti

Left Ports

Right side overview:

1650 & 1650 Ti

Right Ports

1660 Ti

Right Ports

Front side overview:

Front Ports

Back side overview:

1650 & 1650 Ti

Back Ports

1660 Ti

Back Ports

Keyboard Shortcuts

The Gazelle has the following actions available using the Fn and Function keys:

KeyShortcutAction
Fn-F1Fn+F1Toggle trackpad
Fn-F2Fn+F2Lock screen and toggle built-in LCD
Fn-F3Fn+F3Mute
Fn-F5Fn+F5Volume down
Fn-F6Fn+F6Volume up
Fn-F7Fn+F7Toggle displays
Fn-F8Fn+F8Screen brightness down
Fn-F9Fn+F9Screen brightness up
Fn-F10Fn+F10Toggle webcam
Fn-F11Fn+F11Toggle airplane mode
Fn-F12Fn+F12Suspend
Fn-F12Fn+`Play/Pause
1Fn+1Toggle fan between max/automatic
Fn-*Fn+*Toggle keyboard backlight
/Fn+/Cycle keyboard color
-Fn+-Decrease keyboard brightness
+Fn++Increase keyboard brightness

LED indicators

The Gazelle 15 has the following LED indicators:

IconColorDescription
Power LEDOrangeDC power plugged in
GreenComputer is on
Blinking greenComputer is sleeping
Battery LEDOrangeBattery charging
GreenBattery fully charged
Blinking orangeBattery critically low
Airplane LEDGreenAirplane mode is on
(WiFi/Bluetooth disabled)
Storage LEDGreenStorage drive activity

Gazelle (Internal Overview)

User-replaceable components:

The following components can be replaced using the instructions under Parts & Repairs.

Internal Components

  • Battery slot is highlighted in white
  • Wireless card is highlighted in pink
  • RAM slots are highlighted in green
  • 2.5" 7mm drive bay is highlighted in dark blue
  • M.2 PCIe NVMe/SATA SSD slot is highlighted in orange
  • M.2 PCIe NVMe SSD slot is highlighted in light blue
  • CMOS battery is highlighted in cyan

Gazelle (Parts & Repairs)

Many components in your Gazelle can be upgraded or replaced as necessary. Follow these step-by-step guides for instructions:

Replacing the keyboard:

Keyboard replacement is simple and requires only a cross-head screwdriver.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 5 minutes
Difficulty: Easy
Screws: 2 total - 2 x M2 (black)

Steps to replace the keyboard:

  1. Place the Gazelle lid-side down.
  2. Remove the 2 keyboard screws, indicated by the small keyboard icons (highlighted yellow below).

Keyboard screws

  1. Open the Gazelle and place it on its side.
  2. Push the screwdriver into the keyboard push point (highlighted cyan above) until the keyboard pops out.

Keyboard push point

  1. Set the Gazelle down, then pull the keyboard loose, starting from the top side.

Keyboard removal

  1. Flip the keyboard over onto the trackpad.

Keyboard ribbons

  1. Pull the large ribbon cable out of the connector.
  2. The small ribbon cables have latches. Gently pull the latches from both sides and remove the ribbon cables.
  3. Remove the keyboard and replace it with the new one.
  4. Insert the large ribbon cable into the connector.
  5. Seat the small ribbon cables, then apply pressure equally to both sides of the connector to secure.
  6. Flip the keyboard over and press the bottom tabs of the keyboard into the case.
  7. Secure the keyboard by pressing down on the edges of the keyboard.
  8. Flip the Gazelle over.
  9. Replace the 2 screws holding the keyboard in place.
  10. Boot your Gazelle and confirm the keyboard is operational.

Removing the bottom cover:

Removing the cover is required to access the internal components. Prior to removing the cover, ensure the AC power is unplugged and all peripherals (including SD cards and USB drives) are unplugged or removed from the system.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 5 minutes
Difficulty: Easy
Screws: 17 total - 12 x M2 (black); 2 x M2 keyboard (black); 3 x M2 under-battery (black)

Steps to remove the bottom cover:

  1. Place the Gazelle lid-side down.
  2. Remove the external battery.
  3. Remove the 12 unmarked screws, 2 keyboard screws, and 3 under-battery screws.

Bottom panel screws

  1. Lift the bottom cover off, starting from the front corners working to the back near the hinges.

Replacing the RAM:

RAM acts as temporary storage for your computer. More RAM generally provides better performance. If you've purchased new RAM, need to replace your RAM, or are reseating your RAM, follow these steps.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 10 minutes
Difficulty: Medium

Steps to replace the RAM:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the bottom cover.
  2. Press the small tabs on both sides of the RAM simultaneously. The RAM should spring up to an angle.

RAM removal

  1. Remove the RAM from the slot.
  2. Insert the new RAM (or reseat the existing RAM) by placing it in the keyed slot and pressing down on the RAM until it clicks into place.

Replacing an M.2/NVMe SSD:

This model supports up to two M.2 SSDs. Both M.2 slots are size 2280. The top slot (shown with the yellow box in the image below) supports either SATA III or PCIe NVMe Generation 3, and the bottom slot (orange box) supports only PCIe NVMe Generation 3.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 10 minutes
Difficulty: Medium

Steps to replace the M.2 drive:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the bottom cover.
  2. Locate the M.2 drive (or slot.)

M.2 slots

  1. Unscrew the retainer screw opposite the M.2 slot.
  2. Remove the existing M.2 drive by pulling it out of the slot.
  3. Insert the new M.2 drive into the slot and hold it in place.
  4. Replace the retainer screw.

Replacing the cooling system:

If one of the fans becomes noisy and cleaning it out doesn't fix the issue, you may need a new fan. Contact Support to start a warranty claim or parts purchase.

Depending on your climate and the age of the machine, it may be necessary to apply new thermal paste between the CPU/GPU and the heatsink. Thermal paste helps facilitate effective heat transfer between the CPU/GPU and the cooling equipment. These instructions can also be used in the unlikely event your heatsink needs replacing.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 10 minutes
Difficulty: Medium

Steps to replace the fans/heatsink/thermal paste:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the bottom cover.
  2. Locate the CPU heatsink screws.
  3. Remove the screws, starting with #1, then #2, and continuing until you have removed #11.

Thermal screws

  1. Carefully remove the heatsink/fans from the case.
  2. Using a paper towel, remove the existing thermal paste. You may also use a small amount of rubbing alcohol to remove excess or difficult-to-remove paste.

Heatsink

  1. After cleaning the CPU, GPU, and heatsink, apply a small line of thermal paste directly onto the CPU and GPU core.

Thermal paste

  1. Carefully replace the heatsink.
  2. Replace the screws, starting with #1, then #2, and so on until #11. Do not fully tighten until all of the screws have been started, then fully tighten all screws.

Replacing the CMOS battery:

The CMOS battery supplies power to the Gazelle's CMOS chip. Changes you make to the UEFI firmware settings and the comptuer's hardware clock are stored on the CMOS. If your Gazelle doesn't boot, you can reset the CMOS to force a low-level hardware reset. If your clock is constantly resetting, it's likely your CMOS battery needs replacing.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 10 minutes
Difficulty: Medium

Steps to replace the CMOS battery:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the bottom cover.
  2. Locate the CMOS battery, which is connected to the motherboard via a red and black wire, between the 2.5" drive bay and the edge of the computer.

CMOS battery

  1. Unplug the small white connector that connects the CMOS battery to the motherboard. If you are replacing the battery, use a thin plastic tool to pry the battery up from where it's stuck to the case.
  2. Power up the Gazelle. The system may power itself off and on after initial boot; this is normal behavior when the CMOS has been reset.
  3. Press Enter at the CMOS/UEFI reset message prompts.
  4. If the system boots into the BIOS/UEFI setup utility, press F4 to load defaults, then F10 to save and resume normal boot.

Replacing the external battery:

The battery provides primary power whenever the system is unplugged.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 1 minute
Difficulty: Easy

Steps to replace the external battery:

  1. Slide the locks that hold the battery to their unlocked positions. (One lock will click into place, while the other is on a spring.)
  2. Hold back the spring-loaded lock while removing the battery.
  3. Replace the battery/insert the new battery, then slide the clicking lock to its locked position.

Replacing the wireless card:

Your Gazelle's WiFi and Bluetooth are both handled by the same module. It is a standard M.2 2230 slot with PCIe and USB interfaces (A Key).

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 10 minutes
Difficulty: Medium

Steps to replace the WiFi/Bluetooth module:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the bottom cover.
  2. Locate the wireless module.

Wireless card

  1. Gently remove the two antennas by pulling them up and away from the wireless card.
  2. Remove the retaining screw opposite the M.2 slot.
  3. Remove the wireless card from the M.2 slot.
  4. Insert the new wireless card into the M.2 slot.
  5. Replace the retaining screw.
  6. Attach the two antennas by aligning the circular fitting and pressing onto the wireless card. The connector will snap into place. Use caution when attaching the connectors; the pins can bend, break, or snap.

Lemur Pro (lemp9)

Lemur Pro

The System76 Lemur Pro is a laptop with the following specifications:

  • CPU
  • EC
    • ITE IT5570E running System76 EC
    • Backlit Keyboard, with standard PS/2 keycodes and SCI hotkeys
    • Battery
    • Charger, using AC adapter or USB-C PD
    • Suspend/resume
    • Touchpad
  • Firmware
  • GPU
    • Intel UHD Graphics 620
    • GOP driver is recommended, VBT is provided
    • eDP 14-inch 1920x1080 LCD
    • HDMI video
    • USB-C DisplayPort video
  • Memory
  • Networking
    • M.2 PCIe/CNVi WiFi/Bluetooth
  • Power
  • Sound
    • Realtek ALC293D
    • Internal speaker
    • Internal microphone
    • Combined headphone/microphone 3.5-mm jack
    • HDMI audio
    • USB-C DisplayPort audio
  • Storage
    • M.2 PCIe/SATA SSD-1
    • M.2 PCIe/SATA SSD-2
    • RTS5227S MicroSD card reader
  • USB

Lemur Pro (External Overview)

Left side overview:

Left Ports

Right side overview:

Right Ports

Front side overview:

Front Ports

Back side overview:

Back Ports

Speakers

The grilles for the built-in speakers are located on the bottom of the machine, angled outward.

Bottom Ports

Keyboard Shortcuts

The Lemur Pro has the following actions available using the Fn and Function keys:

KeyShortcutAction
Fn-F1Fn+F1Toggle trackpad
Fn-F2Fn+F2Toggle built-in LCD
Fn-F3Fn+F3Mute
Fn-F3Fn+F4Keyboard backlight toggle/brightness
Fn-F5Fn+F5Volume down
Fn-F6Fn+F6Volume up
Fn-F7Fn+F7Toggle displays
Fn-F8Fn+F8Screen brightness down
Fn-F9Fn+F9Screen brightness up
Fn-F10Fn+F10Toggle webcam
Fn-F11Fn+F11Toggle airplane mode
Fn-F12Fn+F12Suspend

LED indicators

There is an LED light next to the DC-in connector (charger port.) The color and pattern indicate:

  • Solid green: Powered on and not suspended.
  • Flashing green: Powered on and suspended.
  • Solid yellow: Powered off and charging.
  • Off: Powered off and not charging.

External Displays

This model supports HDMI and DisplayPort over USB-C connections for external displays.

Lemur Pro (Internal Overview)

User-replaceable components:

The following components can be replaced using the instructions under Parts & Repairs.

Internal Components

  • CPU fan/heatsink is highlighted in cyan
  • M.2 SSDs are highlighted in yellow
  • RAM is highlighted in pink
  • Wireless card is highlighted in green
  • Battery is highlighted in orange

Other connectors:

These components are not considered user-serviceable, but may be replaced by our hardware team or a local repair shop. The connectors may be reseated for troubleshooting purposes.

Internal Connectors

  • LCD cable connector is highlighted in yellow
  • Touchpad connector is highlighted in red
  • Keyboard connector (main) is highlighted in green
  • Keyboard backlight connector is highlighted in pink
  • Speaker connectors are highlighted in cyan
  • Speakers are highlighted in brown

Lemur Pro (Parts & Repairs)

Many components in your Lemur Pro can be upgraded or replaced as necessary. Follow these step-by-step guides for instructions:

Removing the bottom cover:

Removing the cover is required to access the internal components. Prior to removing the cover, ensure the AC power is unplugged and all peripherals (including SD cards and USB drives) are unplugged or removed from the system.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 5 minutes
Difficulty: Easy
Screws: 12 total

Steps to remove the bottom cover:

  1. Place the Lemur Pro lid-side down.
  2. Remove the 12 screws from the bottom panel.

Bottom case screws

  1. Lift the bottom cover off, starting from the hinges and working towards the front.

Replacing the RAM

The Lemur Pro 9 comes with 8GB of RAM soldered onto the motherboard, which cannot be replaced. There is an additional RAM slot, which can support up to a 32GB stick for 40GB of RAM total. If you've purchased new RAM, need to replace your RAM, or are reseating your RAM, follow these steps.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 10 minutes
Difficulty: Medium

Steps to replace the RAM:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the bottom cover.
  2. Press the small tabs on both sides of the RAM simultaneously. The RAM should spring up to an angle.

RAM tabs

  1. Remove the RAM from the slot.
  2. Insert the new RAM (or reseat the existing RAM) by placing it in the keyed slot and pressing down on the RAM until it clicks into place.

Replacing an M.2/NVMe SSD:

This model supports up to two M.2 SSDs. Both M.2 slots are size 2280, and both slots support SATA III or PCIe NVMe Generation 3.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 10 minutes
Difficulty: Medium

Steps to replace the M.2 drive:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the bottom cover.
  2. Locate the M.2 drives (or slots.) The primary slot is next to the battery (highlighted yellow here), while the secondary slot is above the battery (highlighted red).

M.2 slots

  1. Unscrew the retainer screw opposite the M.2 slot.

M.2 screws

  1. Remove the existing M.2 drive by pulling it out of the slot.
  2. Insert the new M.2 drive into the slot and hold it down.
  3. Replace the retainer screw.

Replacing the cooling system:

If the CPU fan becomes noisy and cleaning it out doesn't fix the issue, you may need a new CPU fan. Contact Support to start a warranty claim or parts purchase.

Depending on your climate and the age of the machine, it may be necessary to apply new thermal paste between the CPU and the heatsink. Thermal paste helps facilitate effective heat transfer between the CPU and the cooling equipment. These instructions can also be used in the unlikely event your heatsink needs replacing.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 20 minutes
Difficulty: High

Steps to replace the fans/heatsink/thermal paste:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the bottom cover.
  2. Locate the CPU heatsink screws (highlighted yellow here) as well as the fan connector and screws (highlighted in red).

Heatsink/fan screws

  1. Disconnect the small connector plugging the fan into the motherboard.
  2. Remove the heatsink screws in reverse order, starting with #3, then #2, and finally #1.
  3. Remove the screws holding the fan onto the case.
  4. Carefully remove the heatsink/fans from the case.
  5. Using a paper towel, remove the existing thermal paste. You may also use a small amount of rubbing alcohol to remove excess or difficult-to-remove paste.
  6. After cleaning the CPU and heatsink, apply a small line of thermal paste directly onto the CPU.
  7. Carefully replace the fan and heat sink.
  8. Replace the heatsink screws, starting with #1, then #2, and finally #3. Also replace the fan screws. Do not fully tighten until all screws are in place.
  9. Plug the fan back in.

Replacing the CMOS battery:

The CMOS battery supplies power to the system's CMOS chip. UEFI settings and the comptuer's hardware clock are stored on the CMOS. If your system doesn't boot, you can reset the CMOS to force a low-level hardware reset. If your clock is constantly resetting, it's likely your CMOS battery needs replacing.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 10 minutes
Difficulty: Medium

Steps to replace the CMOS battery:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the bottom cover.
  2. Follow the steps above to remove the primary SSD; the CMOS battery is located underneath this SSD.

CMOS battery

  1. Unplug the small white connector that connects the CMOS battery to the motherboard. If you are replacing the battery, use a thin plastic tool to pry the battery up from where it's stuck to the case.
  2. Disconnect the main internal battery, then hold down the power button for at least 15 seconds to discharge any residual energy in the system.
  3. Re-connect the CMOS battery as well as the main internal battery.
  4. Power up the Lemur Pro. The system may power itself off and on after initial boot; this is normal behavior when the CMOS has been reset.

Replacing the wireless card

Your system's WiFi and Bluetooth are both handled by the same module. It connects with a standard M.2 2230 slot with PCIe and USB interfaces (A Key).

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 10 minutes
Difficulty: Medium

Steps to replace the WiFi/Bluetooth module

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the bottom cover.
  2. Locate the wireless card (next to the CPU fan.) Remove any tape if present.

Wireless card

  1. Gently remove the two antennas by pulling them up and away from the wireless card.
  2. Remove the retaining screw opposite the M.2 slot.
  3. Remove the wireless card from the M.2 slot.
  4. Insert the new wireless card into the M.2 slot.
  5. Replace the retaining screw.
  6. Attach the two antennas by aligning the circular fitting and pressing onto the wireless card. The connector will snap into place. Use caution when attaching the connectors; the pins can bend, break, or snap.

Replacing the main battery

The battery provides primary power whenever the system is unplugged.

CAUTION: Do not use metal tools to remove the battery. Do not touch the battery contacts with your hands or metal objects. If the battery is damaged during repairs, do not reinsert it into the laptop. Do not continue to use the computer if it contains a damaged battery. It is a potential fire hazard to operate a computer with a damaged battery. Keep children away from, and properly dispose of, the damaged battery. Always dispose of batteries carefully, by placing a piece of tape on the contact points. Take damaged batteries to an electronics recycling center and contact System76 to purchase a replacement. Batteries may explode or leak if exposed to fire, or if improperly handled or discarded. Only use batteries designed for your specific computer. The product that you have purchased contains a rechargeable battery. The battery is recyclable. At the end of its useful life, under various state and local laws, it may be illegal to dispose of this battery into the municipal waste stream. Check with your local solid waste officials for details in your area for recycling options or proper disposal.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 15 minutes
Difficulty: High

Steps to replace the main battery

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the bottom cover.
  2. Unplug the white connector that connects the battery to the motherboard.

Main battery

  1. Remove the battery. The battery is secured with tape, which can be pulled off. The tabs around the battery will also need to be held back for the battery to come out.
  2. Put the battery back (or put your new battery in its place) and plug it back into the motherboard.

Meerkat (meer5)

Short Meerkat

The System76 Meerkat is a desktop with the following specifications:

  • CPU options
  • Memory
    • Up to 64GB (2x32GB) Dual Channel DDR4 SODIMMs @ 2666 MHz
  • Networking
    • Intel® Ethernet Connection I219-V
    • Intel® Wi-Fi 6 AX201 with integrated bluetooth
  • Power
    • 19V DC in, via 5.5mm x 10mm barrel plug
    • Included 19V 6.32A power adapter with C6 AC inlet. A C5 AC cable with US wall socket plug is also included.
  • Sound
    • 3.5mm line out/line in combo jack for headsets
    • 7.1 digital out over HDMI and mDP
    • Integrated front microphone
  • Storage
    • 1x M.2 (PCIe NVMe or SATA)
    • 1x 2.5" SATA (for Tall meer5 only)
    • SD card reader
  • USB
    • 1x USB 3.1 Gen 2 Type-C
    • 1x USB 3.1 Gen 2 Type-C with Thunderbolt 3
    • 3x USB 3.1 Gen 2 Type-A
  • Dimensions
    • Short: 117 x 112 x 38mm
    • Tall: 117 x 112 x 51mm

Meerkat (External Overview)

Short meer5:

Front side overview:

Front Ports

Back side overview:

Back Ports

Left side overview:

Left Port

Right side overview:

Right Port

Tall meer5:

Front side overview:

Front Ports

Back side overview:

Back Ports

Left side overview:

Left Port

Meerkat (Internal Overview)

Component overview:

Internal overview

  • RAM slots are highlighted in bright green
  • M.2 SSD is highlighted in blue
  • 2.5" drive bay (only present on Tall meer5) is highlighted in orange
  • Front microphone connector is highlighted in pink

Meerkat (Parts & Repairs)

Several components in your Meerkat can be upgraded or replaced as necessary. Power the machine off and unplug all peripherals before working with any internal components. Then, follow these step-by-step guides for instructions:

Removing the bottom panel:

The bottom panel can be removed to access the internal components.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 3 minutes
Difficulty: Easy

Steps to remove the bottom panel:

  1. Turn your Meerkat over on its back and completely loosen the four screws in the corners.

Bottom panel screws

  1. The screws are held captive in the bottom panel, so they will not come completely out of the machine, but once they are fully loose, you will be able to grab the screws and gently lift the bottom panel out of the machine.

    If your Meerkat is the Tall variation, use caution when lifting the bottom panel off, as there is a thin cable that attaches to the drive bay in the bottom panel. The cable should be long enough that you can set the bottom panel next to the machine without having to disconnect it at the motherboard, as shown below:

Meerkat internal components

If your Meerkat is the Short variation, you will have no such cable, allowing you to completely remove the bottom panel after the four screws are completely loosened.

Replacing the M.2 drive:

Your Meerkat has one M.2 slot, which supports either PCIe NVMe Gen 3 x4 or SATA III. The following M.2 sizes are supported: 2280 and 2242.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 10 minutes
Difficulty: Easy

Steps to replace the M.2 drive:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the bottom panel.
  2. Unscrew the retainer screw on the end of the SSD opposite the M.2 slot.

M.2 slot screw

  1. Remove the existing M.2 drive by pulling it out of the slot.
  2. Insert the new M.2 drive into the slot and hold it in place.
  3. Replace the retainer screw.
  4. Replace the bottom panel.

Replacing the RAM:

Your Meerkat supports up to 64GB (2x32GB) of RAM. The RAM sticks are DDR4 SODIMMs running at a speed of 2666MHz. If you've purchased new RAM, need to replace your RAM, or are re-seating your RAM, follow these steps.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 10 minutes
Difficulty: Easy

Steps to replace the RAM:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the bottom panel.
  2. Since the RAM slots are stacked on your Meerkat, if you have two RAM sticks installed, the top one must be removed before you can access the one below it. To remove a RAM stick, both RAM latches need to be simultaneously pushed out and away from the edges of the RAM stick.

RAM latch

  1. Once both latches are released, the RAM stick will pop up, pushed the spring tension from the RAM slot. This means the RAM stick can be pulled backwards out of the slot.

Unlatched RAM

  1. To install a RAM stick, slide the stick into the slot at roughly the same angle it was sitting after the latches were released, then push the back edge of the RAM stick downwards so the latches on the sides re-engage.

  2. Replace the bottom panel.

Adding/removing a 2.5" storage drive:

If your Meerkat is the tall variety, it has a 2.5" drive bay built into the bottom panel.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 10 minutes
Difficulty: Easy

Steps to add/remove 2.5" storage drives:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the bottom panel.
  2. Take note of the orientation of the connector on the drive you are installing.

2.5" drive connector

  1. Slide the drive into the slot on the bottom panel until it plugs all the way into its connector.

2.5" drive installation

  1. Replace the bottom panel.

Oryx Pro (oryp6)

Oryx Pro

The System76 Oryx Pro is a laptop with the following specifications:

  • CPU
  • Chipset
  • Firmware
  • EC
  • GPU
    • NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2080 Super (Max-Q)
    • or NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2070 (Max-Q)
    • or NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2060
    • eDP 15.6" or 17.3" 1920x1080@144Hz LCD
    • HDMI, Mini DisplayPort 1.4, and DisplayPort over USB-C
  • Memory
    • Up to 64GB (2x32GB) dual-channel DDR4 SO-DIMMs @ 3200 MHz
  • Networking
    • Gigabit Ethernet
    • M.2 PCIe/CNVi WiFi/Bluetooth
      • Intel Wi-Fi 6 AX200/AX201
  • Power
    • 180W (19.5V, 9.23A) AC adapter
    • 73Wh 3-cell battery
  • Sound
    • Internal speakers & microphone
    • Combined headphone & microphone 3.5mm jack
    • Combined microphone & S/PDIF (optical) 3.5mm jack
    • HDMI, Mini DisplayPort, USB-C DisplayPort audio
  • Storage
    • 1x M.2 (PCIe NVMe or SATA)
    • 1x M.2 (PCIe NVMe only)
    • MicroSD card reader
  • USB
    • 3x USB 3.2 Gen 1 Type-A
    • 1x USB Type-C with Thunderbolt 3
  • Dimensions
    • 15": 35.75cm x 23.8cm x 1.98cm, 1.99kg
    • 17": 39.59cm x 26.495cm x 1.99cm, 2.3kg

Oryx Pro (External Overview)

Left side overview:

Left Ports

Right side overview:

Right Ports

Front side overview:

Front Ports

Back side overview:

Back Ports

Keyboard Shortcuts

The Oryx Pro has the following actions available using the Fn and Function keys:

KeyShortcutAction
Fn-F1Fn+F1Toggle trackpad
Fn-F2Fn+F2Toggle built-in LCD
Fn-F3Fn+F3Mute
Fn-F5Fn+F5Volume down
Fn-F6Fn+F6Volume up
Fn-F7Fn+F7Toggle displays
Fn-F8Fn+F8Screen brightness down
Fn-F9Fn+F9Screen brightness up
Fn-F10Fn+F10Toggle webcam
Fn-F11Fn+F11Toggle airplane mode
Fn-F12Fn+F12Suspend
Fn-F12Fn+`Play/Pause
Fn-*Fn+*Toggle keyboard backlight
/Fn+/Cycle keyboard color
-Fn+-Decrease keyboard brightness
+Fn++Increase keyboard brightness

LED indicators

The Oryx Pro has the following LED indicators:

IconColorDescription
Power LEDOrangePowered off, DC power plugged in
GreenPowered on
Blinking greenSleeping (suspended)
Battery LEDOrangeBattery charging
GreenBattery fully charged
Blinking orangeBattery critically low
Storage LEDGreenStorage drive activity

Oryx Pro (Internal Overview)

Bottom components and connectors:

Internal Components

  • Fan/heatsink module is highlighted in blue
  • Fan connectors are highlighted in purple
  • RAM is highlighted in light green
  • Wireless card is highlighted in pink
  • Battery connector is highlighted in red
  • Battery is highlighted in orange
  • M.2 SSDs are highlighted in yellow
  • CMOS battery connector is highlighted in cyan
  • Speakers are highlighted in light grey
  • Speaker connectors are highlighted in dark green

Under-keyboard components and connectors:

Under-Keyboard Connectors

  • Keyboard connector is highlighted in yellow
  • Keyboard backlight connector is highlighted in cyan
  • Power button/LED connector is highlighted in pink

Oryx Pro (Parts & Repairs)

Many components in your Oryx Pro can be upgraded or replaced as necessary. Follow these step-by-step guides for instructions:

Replacing the keyboard:

Keyboard replacement is simple and requires only a cross-head screwdriver.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 5 minutes
Difficulty: Easy
Screws: 2 total - 2 x M2 (black)

Steps to replace the keyboard:

  1. Place the Oryx Pro lid-side down.
  2. Remove the 2 keyboard screws, indicated by the small keyboard icons.

Keyboard screws

  1. Open the lid slightly and place the machine on its side.
  2. Push the screwdriver into the keyboard push point (highlighted green above) until the keyboard pops out.

Keyboard push point

  1. Flip the keyboard over onto the touchpad and set the Oryx Pro back down. The larger ribbon cable is for the keyboard, while the smaller ribbon cable is for the keyboard backlight.

Keyboard ribbons

  1. Flip the black latches (shown below) upwards to free the ribbon cables.

Keyboard connectors

  1. Pull the ribbon cables out of the connectors.
  2. Remove the keyboard and replace it with the new one.
  3. Carefully slide both ribbon cables into their connectors.
  4. Flip the black latches back into place to secure the ribbon cables.
  5. Place the keyboard back into position, starting with the tabs on the bottom edge.
  6. Secure the rest of the keyboard by pressing down on each of its edges.
  7. Turn the machine lid-side down again.
  8. Replace the 2 keyboard screws.
  9. Boot the machine and confirm the keyboard and keyboard backlight are operational.

Removing the bottom cover:

Removing the cover is required to access the internal components. Prior to removing the cover, ensure the AC power is unplugged and all peripherals (including SD cards and USB drives) are unplugged or removed from the system.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 5 minutes
Difficulty: Easy
Screws: 13 total - 11 x M2 (black); 2 x M2.5 (black)

Steps to remove the bottom cover:

  1. Place the Oryx Pro lid-side down.
  2. Remove the 13 bottom panel screws. Note that two of the screws are longer than the rest (highlighted red below.)

Bottom panel screws

  1. Lift the bottom panel off of the case.

Replacing the RAM:

The Oryx Pro 6 supports up to 64GB (2x32GB) of DDR4 SO-DIMMs running at 3200MHz. If you've purchased new RAM, need to replace your RAM, or are reseating your RAM, follow these steps.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 10 minutes
Difficulty: Medium

Steps to replace the RAM:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the bottom cover.
  2. Press the small tabs on both sides of the RAM simultaneously. The RAM should spring up to an angle.

RAM removal

  1. Remove the RAM from the slot.
  2. Insert the new RAM (or reseat the existing RAM) by placing it in the keyed slot and pressing down on the RAM until it clicks into place.

Replacing an M.2/NVMe SSD:

This model supports up to two M.2 SSDs. Both M.2 slots are size 2280. The inner-most slot (closest to the battery) supports only PCIe NVMe Generation 3, and the outer-most slot (farthest away from the battery) supports either SATA III or PCIe NVMe Generation 3.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 10 minutes
Difficulty: Medium

Steps to replace the M.2 drive:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the bottom cover.
  2. Unscrew the retainer screw opposite the M.2 slot.

M.2 slots

  1. Remove the existing M.2 drive by pulling it out of the slot.
  2. Insert the new M.2 drive into the slot and hold it in place.
  3. Replace the retainer screw.

Replacing the cooling system:

If the CPU/GPU fans become noisy and cleaning them out doesn't fix the issue, you may need a new fan. Contact Support to start a warranty claim or parts purchase.

Depending on your climate and the age of the machine, it may be necessary to apply new thermal paste between the CPU/GPU and the heatsink. Thermal paste helps facilitate effective heat transfer between the CPU/GPU and the cooling equipment. These instructions can also be used in the unlikely event your heatsink needs replacing.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 15 minutes
Difficulty: High

Steps to replace the fans/heatsink/thermal paste:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the bottom cover.
  2. Locate the CPU heatsink screws.
  3. Remove the silver screws in the order of the stamped numbers, starting with #1, then #2, and continuing until you have removed #6.

Thermal screws

  1. Remove the 6 black screws holding the fans onto the chassis (highlighted yellow above.) Note: Do not remove the smaller black screws holding the fan covers onto the fans.
  2. If there is any clear tape securing the heatsink/fans or the fan wires, remove it.
  3. Unplug the two white fan connectors from the motherboard (highlighted cyan above).
  4. Remove the heatsink/fans from the case, being careful not to bend the heatsink pipes. It may take some pressure to break the seal of the thermal paste.

Heatsink assembly

  1. Using a paper towel, remove the existing thermal paste. You may also use a small amount of rubbing alcohol if the old paste is dried or difficult to remove.
  2. After cleaning the CPU, GPU, and heatsink, apply a small line of thermal paste directly onto the CPU and GPU chips.

Thermal paste application

  1. Carefully replace the heatsink.
  2. Replace the silver heatsink screws, starting with #1, then #2, and so on until #6.
  3. Replace the black fan screws.
  4. Plug the two white fan connectors back into the motherboard.

Replacing the battery:

The battery provides primary power whenever the system is unplugged.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 5 minutes
Difficulty: Medium

Steps to replace the battery:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the bottom cover.
  2. If there is an M.2 SSD in the slot closest to the battery, follow the steps above to remove the M.2 SSD.
  3. The battery is held in by three of the bottom panel screws and two additional screws, one of which is underneath the M.2 SSD. Remove the two final screws, highlighted red below.

Battery screws

  1. Unplug the white connector (highlighted yellow above) connecting the battery to the motherboard and remove the battery.
  2. When plugging in the new battery, the red wire on the connector goes on the left, and the black wire goes on the right.

Replacing the CMOS battery:

The CMOS battery supplies power to the system's CMOS chip. UEFI settings and the comptuer's hardware clock are stored on the CMOS. If your system doesn't boot, you can reset the CMOS to force a low-level hardware reset. If your clock is constantly resetting, it's likely your CMOS battery needs replacing.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 10 minutes
Difficulty: Medium

Steps to replace the CMOS battery:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the bottom cover.
  2. If there is an M.2 SSD in the slot closest to the main battery, follow the steps above to remove the M.2 SSD.
  3. Follow the steps above to remove the main battery. The CMOS battery is located underneath the main battery.

CMOS battery

  1. Unplug the small white connector that connects the CMOS battery to the motherboard, highlighted yellow above. If you are replacing the battery, use a thin plastic tool to pry the battery up from where it's stuck to the case.
  2. To clear the CMOS, open the lid of the machine and hold down the power button for at least 15 seconds to discharge any residual energy in the system.
  3. Re-connect the CMOS battery, replace the main battery, and replace the M.2 SSD.
  4. Replace the bottom panel and power up the Oryx Pro. The system may power itself off and on after initial boot; this is normal behavior when the CMOS has been reset.

Replacing the wireless card:

Your Oryx Pro's WiFi and Bluetooth are both handled by the same module. It is a standard M.2 2230 slot with PCIe and USB interfaces (A Key).

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 10 minutes
Difficulty: Medium

Steps to replace the WiFi/Bluetooth module:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the bottom cover.
  2. Locate the wireless module. Remove any clear tape that is securing the wires.

Wireless card

  1. Gently remove the two antennas (highlighted pink above) by pulling them up and away from the wireless card.
  2. Remove the retaining screw opposite the M.2 slot, highlighted cyan above.
  3. The wireless card will pop up at an angle. Remove the card from the M.2 slot.
  4. Insert the new wireless card into the M.2 slot at an angle.
  5. Replace the retaining screw.
  6. Attach the two antennas by aligning the circular fittings and pressing onto the wireless card. The connectors will snap into place. Use caution when attaching the connectors; the pins can bend, break, or snap.

Serval WS (serw12)

Serval WS

The System76 Serval WS is a laptop with the following specifications:

  • CPU
  • Chipset
    • AMD B450
  • Firmware
    • System76 Firmware (non-open)
  • EC
    • ITE IT5570E
  • GPU
    • NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2070
    • or NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1660 Ti
    • eDP 15.6" 1920x1080@120Hz LCD
    • HDMI, Mini DisplayPort 1.4, and DisplayPort 1.4 over USB-C
  • Memory
    • Up to 64GB (2x32GB) dual-channel DDR4 SO-DIMMs @ 3200 MHz
  • Networking
    • Gigabit Ethernet
    • M.2 PCIe/CNVi WiFi/Bluetooth
      • Intel Wi-Fi 6 AX200/AX201
  • Power
    • RTX 2070: 230W (19.5V, 9.23A) AC adapter
    • GTX 1660 Ti: 180W (19.5V, 9.23A) AC adapter
    • 62Wh 6-cell battery
  • Sound
    • Internal speakers & microphone
    • Combined headphone & microphone 3.5mm jack
    • Microphone 3.5mm jack
    • HDMI, Mini DisplayPort, USB-C DisplayPort audio
  • Storage
    • M.2 SSD (slot 1): PCIe NVMe Gen 2
    • M.2 SSD (slot 2): PCIe NVMe Gen 3 or SATA III
    • 1x 2.5" 7mm (SATA)
    • MicroSD card reader
  • USB
    • 2x USB 3.2 Gen 2 Type-A
    • 1x USB 3.2 Gen 2 Type-C
    • 1x USB 2.0 Type-A
  • Dimensions
    • 3.251cm x 36.0934cm x 25.806cm, 2.70kg

Serval WS (External Overview)

Left side overview:

Left Ports

Right side overview:

Right Ports

Front side overview:

Front Ports

Back side overview:

Back Ports

Keyboard Shortcuts

The Serval WS has the following actions available using the Fn and Function keys:

KeyShortcutAction
Fn-F1Fn+F1Toggle trackpad
Fn-F2Fn+F2Toggle built-in LCD
Fn-F3Fn+F3Mute
Fn-F5Fn+F5Volume down
Fn-F6Fn+F6Volume up
Fn-F7Fn+F7Toggle displays
Fn-F8Fn+F8Screen brightness down
Fn-F9Fn+F9Screen brightness up
Fn-F10Fn+F10Toggle webcam
Fn-F11Fn+F11Toggle airplane mode
Fn-F12Fn+F12Suspend
Fn-F12Fn+`Play/Pause
1Fn+1Toggle fan between max/automatic
Fn-*Fn+*Toggle keyboard backlight
/ (numpad)Fn+/Cycle keyboard color
- (numpad)Fn+-Decrease keyboard brightness
+ (numpad)Fn++Increase keyboard brightness

LED indicators

The Serval WS has the following LED indicators:

IconColorDescription
Power LEDOrangePowered off, DC power plugged in
GreenPowered on
Blinking greenSleeping (suspended)
Battery LEDOrangeBattery charging
GreenBattery fully charged
Blinking orangeBattery critically low
Airplane LEDGreenAirplane mode is on (WiFi/Bluetooth disabled)
Storage LEDGreenStorage drive activity

Serval WS (Internal Overview)

Bottom components and connectors:

Internal Components

  • Fan/heatsink module is highlighted in white
  • Additional fan is highlighted in olive
  • Fan connectors are highlighted in pink
  • M.2 SSDs are highlighted in yellow
  • Wireless card is below the top M.2 SSD, highlighted dashed red
  • CMOS battery connector is highlighted in cyan
  • RAM is highlighted in light green
  • 2.5" drive bay is highlighted in dark red
  • Battery slot is highlighted in orange

Under-keyboard components and connectors:

Under-Keyboard Connectors

  • Keyboard connector is highlighted in yellow
  • Keyboard backlight connector is highlighted in green
  • Power button/LED connector is highlighted in red

Serval WS (Parts & Repairs)

Many components in your Serval WS can be upgraded or replaced as necessary. Follow these step-by-step guides for instructions:

Removing the battery:

The battery provides primary power whenever the system is unplugged.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 1 minute
Difficulty: Easy

Steps to remove the battery:

  1. Place the Serval WS lid-side down.
  2. Unscrew the two battery screws (highlighted yellow below.)

Battery screws

  1. Pick the battery up and remove it from the slot.

Removing the bottom cover:

Removing the cover is required to access the internal components. Prior to removing the cover, ensure the AC power is unplugged and all peripherals (including SD cards and USB drives) are unplugged or removed from the system.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 5 minutes
Difficulty: Easy

Steps to remove the bottom cover:

  1. Remove the battery.
  2. Remove the 5 bottom panel screws (highlighted red below.)

Bottom panel screws

  1. Slide the bottom panel away from the battery slot, then lift it off of the case.

Replacing the keyboard:

The keyboard can be replaced using the instructions below.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 10 minutes
Difficulty: Medium

Steps to replace the keyboard:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the battery and remove the bottom cover.
  2. Remove the two keyboard screws (circled green and cyan below.)

Keyboard screws

  1. Open the lid slightly and place the machine on its side.
  2. Push the screwdriver into the keyboard push point (highlighted cyan above) until the keyboard pops out.

Keyboard push point

  1. Flip the keyboard over onto the touchpad and set the Serval WS back down. The larger ribbon cable is for the keyboard, while the smaller ribbon cable is for the keyboard backlight.

Keyboard ribbons

  1. Flip the black latches (highlighted red below) upwards to free the ribbon cables.

Keyboard connectors

  1. Pull the ribbon cables out of the connectors.
  2. Remove the keyboard and replace it with the new one.
  3. Carefully slide both ribbon cables into their connectors.
  4. Flip the black latches back into place to secure the ribbon cables.
  5. Place the keyboard back into position, starting with the tabs on the bottom edge.
  6. Secure the rest of the keyboard by pressing down on each of its edges.
  7. Turn the machine lid-side down again.
  8. Replace the 2 keyboard screws, the bottom panel, and the battery.
  9. Boot the machine and confirm the keyboard and keyboard backlight are operational.

Replacing the RAM:

The Serval WS 12 supports up to 64GB (2x32GB) of DDR4 SO-DIMMs running at 3200MHz. If you've purchased new RAM, need to replace your RAM, or are reseating your RAM, follow these steps.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 10 minutes
Difficulty: Easy

Steps to replace the RAM:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the battery and remove the bottom cover.
  2. Press the small tabs on both sides of the RAM simultaneously. The RAM should spring up to an angle.

RAM removal

  1. Remove the RAM from the slot.
  2. Insert the new RAM (or reseat the existing RAM) by placing it in the keyed slot and pressing down on the RAM until it clicks into place.

Replacing an M.2/NVMe SSD:

This model supports up to two M.2 SSDs. Both M.2 slots are size 2280. Slot 1 supports PCIe NVMe Generation 2, while Slot 2 supports either SATA III or PCIe NVMe Generation 3.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 10 minutes
Difficulty: Easy

Steps to replace the M.2 drive:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the battery and remove the bottom cover.
  2. Unscrew the retainer screw opposite the M.2 slot.

M.2 slots

  1. Remove the existing M.2 drive by pulling it out of the slot.
  2. Insert the new M.2 drive into the slot and hold it in place.
    • The slot closest to the fan supports either PCIe NVMe Generation 3 or SATA III. The slot closest to the battery supports PCIe NVMe Generation 2 only. (PCIe NVMe Generation 3 drives will work at slower speeds in the Generation 2 slot.)
  3. Replace the retainer screw.

Replacing the cooling system:

The Serval WS 12 has a single heatsink for the CPU and GPU. One fan is attached to the heatsink, while one additional fan is separate from the heatsink.

If the fans become noisy and cleaning them out doesn't fix the issue, you may need a new fan. Contact Support to start a warranty claim or parts purchase.

Depending on your climate and the age of the machine, it may be necessary to apply new thermal paste between the CPU/GPU and the heatsink. Thermal paste helps facilitate effective heat transfer between the CPU/GPU and the cooling equipment. These instructions can also be used in the unlikely event your heatsink needs replacing.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 15 minutes
Difficulty: High

Steps to replace the heatsink/thermal paste:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the battery and remove the bottom cover.
  2. Locate the CPU heatsink screws.
  3. Remove the eight numbered screws in reverse order, starting with #8, then #7, and continuing until you have removed #1. Screws 1-6 (highlighted red below) are on the heat sink, while 7-8 (highlighted green below) are on the attached fan.

Thermal screws

  1. Unplug the white fan connector (for the attached fan) from the motherboard.
  2. Remove the heatsink/fans from the case, being careful not to bend the heatsink pipes. It may take some pressure to break the seal of the thermal paste. If necessary, apply pressure using a flat object wedged underneath the ends of the heatsink pipes.

Prying off the heatsink

  1. Using a paper towel, remove the existing thermal paste. You may also use a small amount of rubbing alcohol if the old paste is dried or difficult to remove.

Heatsink assembly

Thermal paste removal

  1. After cleaning the CPU, GPU, and heatsink, apply a small line of thermal paste directly onto the CPU and GPU chips.

Thermal paste application

  1. Carefully replace the heatsink.
  2. Replace the heatsink and fan screws, starting with #1, then #2, and so on until #8.
  3. Plug the white fan connector (for the attached fan) back into the motherboard.

Steps to replace the additional fan:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the heatsink.
  2. Remove the three screws (highlighted yellow in the above section) holding the additional fan in place.
  3. Unplug the black connector from the motherboard (pictured below) and remove the additional fan.

Additional fan

Replacing the CPU:

The Serval WS uses an AM4 socket for the CPU. If you are upgrading or replacing your CPU, follow the steps below.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 20 minutes
Difficulty: High

Steps to replace the CPU:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the battery, remove the bottom cover, and remove the heatsink.
  2. Lift up the lever holding the CPU in place, highlighted red below.

CPU lever

Raised CPU lever

  1. Carefully lift the old CPU out of the socket. Caution: Be careful not to bend any of the gold pins on the bottom of the CPU.
  2. Carefully place the new CPU into the socket. One of the corners of the socket and CPU are marked with a triangle; be sure to match the triangles to the same corner so the CPU is placed in the correct orientation.

Triangle on socket

  1. Replace the thermal paste, heatsink/fan(s), bottom panel, and battery.

Replacing the CMOS battery:

The CMOS battery supplies power to the system's CMOS chip. UEFI settings and the comptuer's hardware clock are stored on the CMOS. If your system doesn't boot, you can reset the CMOS to force a low-level hardware reset. If your clock is constantly resetting, it's likely your CMOS battery needs to be replaced.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 10 minutes
Difficulty: Easy

Steps to replace the CMOS battery:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the main battery and remove the bottom cover.
  2. Locate the CMOS battery, which is in between the M.2 SSD slots and the RAM slots, just next to the battery slot.

CMOS battery

  1. From the side of the battery that is not covered, pull the battery up to free it from the slot, then remove it.
  2. To clear the CMOS, open the lid of the machine and hold down the power button for at least 15 seconds to discharge any residual energy in the system.
  3. Place the new (or existing) CMOS battery in the black plastic slot, starting with the side that will cover the battery, then push the opposite side back into place.

CMOS battery installation

  1. Replace the bottom panel and main battery.
  2. Power up the Serval WS. The system may power itself off and on after initial boot; this is normal behavior when the CMOS has been reset.

Replacing the wireless card:

Your Serval WS's WiFi and Bluetooth are both handled by the same module. It is a standard M.2 2230 slot with PCIe and USB interfaces (A Key).

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 10 minutes
Difficulty: Medium

Steps to replace the WiFi/Bluetooth module:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the battery and remove the bottom cover.
  2. If there is an M.2 SSD in the slot closest to the fan/heatsink, follow the steps above to remove the M.2 SSD.
  3. Locate the wireless module. Remove any clear tape that is securing the wires.

Wireless card

  1. Gently remove the two antennas (highlighted red above) by pulling them up and away from the wireless card.
  2. Remove the retaining screw opposite the M.2 slot, highlighted yellow above.
  3. The wireless card will pop up at an angle. Remove the card from the M.2 slot.
  4. Insert the new wireless card into the M.2 slot at an angle.
  5. Replace the retaining screw.
  6. Attach the two antennas by aligning the circular fittings and pressing onto the wireless card. The connectors will snap into place. Use caution when attaching the connectors; the pins can bend, break, or snap.
  7. Replace the M.2 SSD, bottom cover, and battery.

Thelio Major B2

Tech Specs

Operating System

Pop!_OS 19.10 or 18.04 LTS (64-bit) or Ubuntu 18.04 LTS (64-bit)

Processor

Intel® Core™ X series

Graphics

Up to 2× AMD® or NVIDIA® Graphics

Video Ports (Dependent on GPU selection):

  • Radeon RX 550: 1× DisplayPort, 1× HDMI, 1× DVI

  • Radeon RX 590: 3× DisplayPort, 1× HDMI

  • Radeon RX 5700: 3× DisplayPort, 1× HDMI

  • Radeon RX 5700 XT: 3× DisplayPort, 1× HDMI

  • RX Vega 64: 3× DisplayPort, 1× HDMI

  • GeForce RTX 2060 Super: 3× DisplayPort, 1× HDMI

  • GeForce RTX 2070 Super: 3× DisplayPort, 1× HDMI, 1× USB Type-C

  • GeForce RTX 2080 Super: 3× DisplayPort, 1× HDMI, 1× USB Type-C

  • GeForce RTX 2080Ti: × DisplayPort, 1× HDMI, 1× USB Type-C

  • RTX Titan: 3× DisplayPort, 1× HDMI, 1× USB Type-C

Memory

Up to 256 GB Quad Channel DDR4

Storage

Up to 46 TB, M.2 NVMe and 2.5″ SATA drives

Rear Ports

  • 1× USB 3.1 Type C
  • 1× USB3.1 Gen 2 Type A (red)
  • 6× USB 3.1 Gen 1
  • 1× RJ-45 Port (Ethernet)

Rear Audio

6× auido jacks (Center/Subwoofer Speaker Out, Rear Speaker Out, Side Speaker Out, Line In, Line Out, Mic In)

Networking

  • Gigabit Ethernet
  • Optional Intel® Wireless-AC (a/b/g/n/ac) with Bluetooth

Power Supply

1000W 80+ Certified (90% or greater power efficiency)

Dimensions

Height × Width × Depth

18.19″ × 10.32″ × 16.06″ (462 × 262 × 408mm)

Model

thelio-major-b2

Thelio Major R2

Tech Specs

Operating System

Pop!_OS 19.10 or 18.04 LTS (64-bit) or Ubuntu 18.04 LTS (64-bit)

Processor

AMD® 3rd Gen Ryzen™ Threadripper™ series

Graphics

Up to 2 x AMD® or NVIDIA® Graphics

Video Ports (Dependent on GPU selection):

Radeon RX 550: 1× DisplayPort, 1× HDMI, 1× DVI

Radeon RX 5700: 3× DisplayPort, 1× HDMI

Radeon RX 5700 XT: 3× DisplayPort, 1× HDMI

GeForce RTX 2060 Super: 3× DisplayPort, 1× HDMI

GeForce RTX 2070 Super: 3× DisplayPort, 1× HDMI, 1× USB Type-C

GeForce RTX 2080 Super: 3× DisplayPort, 1× HDMI, 1× USB Type-C

GeForce RTX 2080Ti: 3 × DisplayPort, 1× HDMI, 1× USB Type-C

RTX Titan: 3× DisplayPort, 1× HDMI, 1× USB Type-C

Memory

Up to 256 GB Quad Channel DDR4 @ 3000 MHz

Storage

Up to 46 TB, M.2 NVMe and 2.5″ SATA drives

Rear Ports

  • 5 x USB 3.2 Gen 2 Type-A (red)
  • 4 x USB 2.0
  • 1 x USB 3.2 Gen 2 Type-C
  • 1 x RJ-45 LAN

Rear Audio

5 x Audio Jacks

Networking

Gigabit Ethernet w/ built-in Intel® Wireless-AC (a/b/g/n/ac/ax) with Bluetooth 5.0

Power Supply
1000W 80+ Certified (90% or greater power efficiency)

Dimensions
Height × Width × Depth

18.19″ × 10.32″ × 16.06″ (462 × 262 × 408mm)

Model
thelio-major-r2

External Overview

Ports Overview

Your Thelio Major has several ports accessible from the rear of the machine.

Thelio Major B2 (Intel):

  • 4 USB 3.1 Gen 1 Ports
  • 4 USB 3.1 Gen 2 Ports
  • 1 USB 3.1 Gen 1 Type-C
  • 1 RJ45 Ethernet port
  • Audio In/Out ports (3.5mm, plus TOSLink S/PDIF)
  • 1 Standard 3-prong AC wall adapter port connected to the power supply (with power switch).

External Thelio Ports Overview

Fig. 1: External Thelio Ports Overview.

Thelio Major R2 (AMD):

  • 4 USB 2.0 Type-A
  • 1 USB 3.2 Gen 2 Type-C
  • 5 USB 3.2 Gen 2 Type-A
  • 1 RJ45 Ethernet port
  • Audio In/Out ports (3.5mm, plus TOSLink S/PDIF)
  • Audio In/Out ports (3.5mm, plus TOSLink S/PDIF)

External Thelio Ports Overview

Connecting Displays

Thelio external display ports overview

Fig. 2: Thelio external display ports overview.

Ports will differ from the above image, depending on which graphics cards you have installed.

Since neither Threadripper or Intel Core X processors have integrated graphics, a discrete graphics card is required to use displays on your Thelio Major.

Internal Overview

Thelio Major B1

Internal Overview

Thelio Major B2

Internal Overview

Thelio Major R1

Internal Overview

Thelio Major R2

Internal Overview

Power Switch Connections Overview

The Thelio power button is wired as in the diagram and photo.

Thelio power switch Wiring Diagram

Fig. 12: Close up of Thelio power switch wiring (left). Thelio power switch Wiring Diagram (right).

Thelio IO Board

USB IO The USB connector has a row of 5 and a row of 4 holes for pins. You want to use the row of 4 holes with the red wire to the left. For reference, this is the pinout:

5VD-D+GNDNone

Thelio IO Board Pinout

Fig. 13: Thelio IO Board Pinout.

IO Power button

The button is connected to the left side and the motherboard on the right. Both are connected with the solid plastic side facing the edge. This is the pinout:

ButtonLED+LED-BTN+BTN-
BoardLED+LED-BTN+BTN-

Power Button and Motherboard power connectors attached to Thelio IO board

Fig. 14: Power Button and Motherboard power connectors attached to Thelio IO board.

Fig. 15: Thelio internal power switch (underside of the Thelio IO board).

The Thelio IO power button can be used to power on the Thelio when the top case is removed. The button is located on the underside of the Thelio IO Board (Fig. 15, above).

Motherboard Power button

The motherboard power button is connected on the part of the front panel header missing a pin. Due to a design oddity of motherboards used for Thelio, the positive and negative power button lines must be flipped.

Motherboard power button and Thelio Power Button connections.

Fig. 16: Motherboard power button and Thelio Power Button connections.

This is the pinout:

LED-LED+BTN+BTN-None

Table of Contents

Thelio Major B2 BIOS Overview

BIOS

User Serviceable Parts and Repairs

Top Case (Remove or Replace)

Power Button (Remove or Replace)

CPU Cooler Shroud (Remove or Replace)

RAM (Remove or Replace)

GPU (Remove or Replace)

Drives (Remove or Replace)

CPU Thermal Paste (Remove or Replace)

BIOS

Thelio systems ship with the BIOS configured to the preferred settings. For example, OSes are installed on Thelio systems in UEFI mode by default. It is not necessary to change any of these BIOS settings, however the BIOS menus are shown here for reference.

Hardware Keyboard Shortcuts:

F12 : Boot Menu

F9 : System Information

ESC : BIOS

END : Q-Flash

M.I.T

M.I.T

Fig. 1: The M.I.T. page allows tweaking the frequency of some system components.

System

System summary in BIOS

Fig. 2: System summary in BIOS.

BIOS Menu

BIOS boot summary

Fig. 3: BIOS boot summary.

Peripherals

Peripherals

Fig. 4: BIOS section for Peripheral setup.

Chipset

Chipset

Fig. 5: Chipset information in Thelio BIOS.

Power

Power

Fig. 6: Power Management settings.

Save and Exit

Save & Exit

Fig. 7: Exit the BIOS saving changes to settings.

Return to Contents

Top Case (Remove or replace)

Removing the Top Case

Before servicing your Thelio, be sure to power off and unplug all cords from the computer.

You can find video instructions on this process here.

Link for the video for Top Case Service: (https://youtu.be/Ku91wRHFGY8)

Tools required: Fingers or Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver

Time estimate: 2 minutes

Difficulty: Easy

Screws: 8 total

  • 8 Thumbscrews (Phillips/Cross-head).

Note: These thumbscrews will be on the top left and right, middle left and right, and bottom left and right of the back of the case.

Do not unscrew any screws in the center of the panel. Those screws correspond with parts inside; removing them will not assist you in removing the lid.

All of Thelio’s thumbscrews are the same size, and are interchangeable.

  1. Unscrew the eight (8) thumbscrews from the back of the Thelio.
  2. Lift the lid up and off of the chassis.

Thelio internals with Top Case completely removed

Fig. 10: Thelio internals with Top Case completely removed.

Return to Contents

Replacing the Top Case

This guide explains how to replace the Thelio’s Top Case after performing maintenance.

Tools required: Fingers or Crosshead (Phillips) screwdriver

Time estimate: 2 minutes

Difficulty: Easy

Screws: 8 total

  • 8 Thumbscrews (Phillips/Crosshead).
  1. Align the grooves inside the case with the front of the Thelio frame (the side where the power-button is located).
  2. Once aligned, the case should easily slide down over the chassis.
  3. Press down on the Top Case to make sure it is firmly seated, and the power button is connected internally. There should be no space between the bottom of the Top Case and the Thelio frame.
  4. To ensure the case is seated correctly, plug the Thelio back into power, turn on the power-supply switch, and examine the front of the unit: the power button LED should light up if you press it, and the system fans should spin to life.

Aligning the Thelio Top Case for replacing

Fig. 11: Aligning the Thelio Top Case for replacment. A Thelio (non-major) is pictured here, but the alignment process is the same.

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Power Button (Remove or Replace)

If you’ve purchased a new top case for your Thelio (or received one for a support case), you may need to move the power button from your old top case to the new one. Conversely, if you’ve received a replacement power button, you may need to remove the old power button from your top case and install the new one.

Removing the Power Button

The power button assembly is held on by a single nut inside the case.

Tools required: Needle-nose pliers.

Time estimate: 5 minutes

Difficulty: Easy

  1. Follow the steps to remove the top case
  2. Unplug the power button’s wire from the 90-degree connector (Fig. 12).
  3. Next, unscrew the nut from the power button. Use a pair of needle-nose pliers to loosen the nut (Fig. 14).
  4. Once the nut has been loosened, use your fingers to remove it the rest of the way (Fig. 15).
  5. With the wire unplugged and the nut removed, the power button can be pushed out the front of the case (Fig. 17).
  6. The black plastic rectangle inside of the case will also be loose at this point, and can be removed.

Unplugging power button from 90-degree connector

Fig. 12: Unplugging power button from 90-degree connector.

Cable disconnected from 90-degree connector

Fig. 13: Cable disconnected from 90-degree connector.

Needle-nose pliers can help with unscrewing the nut

Fig. 14: Needle-nose pliers can help with unscrewing the nut.

Once loose, the nut can be unscrewed with fingers

Fig. 15: Once loose, the nut can be unscrewed with fingers.

Removing the nut

Fig. 16: Removing the nut.

Removing button through hole in top-case

Fig. 17: Once the nut is removed, push the power button through the hole in the Top Case.

Button removed through Top Case hole

Fig. 18: Power being pulled completely through Top Case.

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Replacing the Power Button

Tools required: Needle-nose pliers.

Time estimate: 5 minutes

Difficulty: Easy

  1. Line up the black plastic rectangle with the hole inside of the case (Fig. 20).
  2. While holding the black plastic rectangle to the hole, feed the power button wire through the hole and push the power button into the case (Fig. 21).
  3. While holding the button in from the front, thread the power button wire through the nut, then screw the nut onto the power button (Fig. 24).
  4. Tighten the nut with a pair of needle-nose pliers to ensure the plastic bracket doesn’t move around later (Fig. 26).
  5. Finally, plug the power button’s wire into the 90-degree connector so the red wire is on the left (Fig. 27).
  6. Follow the steps to replace the top case

Empty power button hole

Fig. 19: The empty power button hole in the Top Case.

Aligning the internal bracket

Fig. 20: Aligning the internal bracket.

Inserting power button cables

Fig. 21: Inserting power button cables.

Inserting power button through top case

Fig. 22: Inserting power button through Top Case.

Power button fully inserted

Fig. 23: Power button fully inserted in the Top Case.

Inserting cables through nut

Fig. 24: Inserting cables through nut.

Finger tighenting nut

Fig. 25: Finger tightening the nut.

Tightening the nut with needle-nose pliers

Fig. 26: Tightening the nut with needle-nose pliers

Connecting the 90-degree connector.

Fig. 27: Connecting the 90-degree connector.

Final assembly

Fig. 28: The completed power button assembly.

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CPU Cooler Shroud (Remove or replace)

Removing the CPU Cooler Shroud

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver

Time estimate: 2 minutes

Difficulty: Easy

Screws: 16 total

  • 8 Thumbscrews (Phillips/Cross-head) Top Case.
  • 4 Thumbscrews (Phillips/Cross-head) Shroud.
  • 4 Non-Thumbscrews (Phillips/Cross-head) Shroud Bracket.
  1. Follow the steps in Removing the Top Case
  2. Next unfasten the Shroud. To do this, unscrew the 4 thumbscrews near the top of your chassis. They frame the planet themed air-vent (see fig 18 above).
  3. Unscrew the four (4) support bracket screws holding up the cooler shroud. There are two (2) Cross-head (Phillips) screws at the bottom of the chassis, and two (2) on the side of the shroud.
  4. Set the bracket and screws safely aside.
  5. Slide the Cooler Shroud horizontally off of the CPU Cooling fan, and set aside.
  6. You are now free to perform work on the CPU Cooler fan, or access other components that may have been obstructed by the shroud.

Removing CPU Cooler Shroud thumbscrews

Fig. 29: the 4 CPU Cooler Shroud thumbscrews.

Bracket screws, top (close)

Fig. 30: Top two Phillips screws of the Cooler bracket.

Bracket screws, bottom (close)

Fig. 31: Bottom two Phillips screws of the Cooler bracket.

Side View of Cooler Shroud

Fig. 32: Showing the direction to remove the Cooler Shroud.

Internals with Shroud Removed

Fig. 33: Exposed Cooler Shroud.

Internal view of the CPU Cooler Shroud

Fig. 34: Removed Cooler Shroud for reference.

Cooler and fan set aside

Fig. 35: Removed CPU Cooler Shroud and attached fan beside Thelio Chassis.

Return to Contents

Replacing the CPU Cooler Shroud

Tools required: Fingers or Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver

Time estimate: 2 minutes

Difficulty: Easy

Screws: 16 total

  • 8 Thumbscrews (Phillips/Cross-head) Top Case.
  • 4 Thumbscrews (Phillips/Cross-head) Shroud.
  • 4 Non-Thumbscrews (Phillips/Cross-head) Shroud Bracket.
  1. Slide the Cooler Shroud horizontally over the CPU cooling fan, encasing it.
  2. Align the holes of the Shroud with the holes framing the air-vent on the back of the chassis.
  3. Replace the four thumbscrews on the back of the case, fastening the shroud to the outer frame.
  4. Replace the four (4) support bracket screws holding up the cooler shroud. There are two (2) Cross-head (Phillips) screws at the bottom of the chassis, and two (2) on the side of the shroud.
  5. Follow the steps in Replacing the Top Case.

Exposed Cooler

Fig. 36: The exposed cooler.

Shroud replaced

Fig. 37: Direction for replacing the Shroud.

Bracket screws, top (close)

Fig. 38: Top two Phillips screws of the Cooler bracket replaced.

Bracket screws, bottom (close)

Fig. 39: Bottom two Phillips screws of the Cooler bracket.

Replace the CPU Cooler Shroud and thumbscrews

Fig. 40: Replacing the CPU Cooler Shroud thumbscrews.

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RAM (Remove or Replace)

The motherboard in the Thelio Majors require specific placement of the RAM sticks in order for the RAM modules to be utilized properly and for the system to boot.

You can use the following tables to determine the placement of your RAM modules by number used.

Thelio Major B1

Modules UsedDDR4_1_1BDDR4_3_2BDDR4_2_1ADDR4_4_2ACPUDDR4_4_2CDDR4_2_1CDDR4_3_2DDDR4_1_1D
2 ModulesXXXXXX
Modules UsedDDR4_1_1BDDR4_3_2BDDR4_2_1ADDR4_4_2ACPUDDR4_4_2CDDR4_2_1CDDR4_3_2DDDR4_1_1D
4 ModulesXXXX
Modules UsedDDR4_1_1BDDR4_3_2BDDR4_2_1ADDR4_4_2ACPUDDR4_4_2CDDR4_2_1CDDR4_3_2DDDR4_1_1D
6 ModulesXX
Modules UsedDDR4_1_1BDDR4_3_2BDDR4_2_1ADDR4_4_2ACPUDDR4_4_2CDDR4_2_1CDDR4_3_2DDDR4_1_1D
8 Modules

Thelio Major B2

Modules UsedDDR4_1_1BDDR4_3_2BDDR4_2_1ADDR4_4_2ACPUDDR4_4_2CDDR4_2_1CDDR4_3_2DDDR4_1_1D
2 ModulesXXXXXX
Modules UsedDDR4_1_1BDDR4_3_2BDDR4_2_1ADDR4_4_2ACPUDDR4_4_2CDDR4_2_1CDDR4_3_2DDDR4_1_1D
4 ModulesXXXX
Modules UsedDDR4_1_1BDDR4_3_2BDDR4_2_1ADDR4_4_2ACPUDDR4_4_2CDDR4_2_1CDDR4_3_2DDDR4_1_1D
6 ModulesXX
Modules UsedDDR4_1_1BDDR4_3_2BDDR4_2_1ADDR4_4_2ACPUDDR4_4_2CDDR4_2_1CDDR4_3_2DDDR4_1_1D
8 Modules

Thelio Major R1

Modules UsedDDR4_D2DDR4_D1DDR4_C2DDR4_C1CPUDDR4_A1DDR4_A2DDR4_B1DDR4_B2
1 ModulesXXXXXXX
Modules UsedDDR4_D2DDR4_D1DDR4_C2DDR4_C1CPUDDR4_A1DDR4_A2DDR4_B1DDR4_B2
2 ModulesXXXXXX
Modules UsedDDR4_D2DDR4_D1DDR4_C2DDR4_C1CPUDDR4_A1DDR4_A2DDR4_B1DDR4_B2
4 ModulesXXXX
Modules UsedDDR4_D2DDR4_D1DDR4_C2DDR4_C1CPUDDR4_A1DDR4_A2DDR4_B1DDR4_B2
6 ModulesXX
Modules UsedDDR4_D2DDR4_D1DDR4_C2DDR4_C1CPUDDR4_A1DDR4_A2DDR4_B1DDR4_B2
8 Modules

Removing RAM Sticks

You can find video instructions on this process here.

Link for the video for RAM Service: (https://youtu.be/OFv8ByuDGU0)

Tools required: Fingers or Crosshead (Phillips) screwdriver (for Top Case)

Time estimate: 5 minutes

Difficulty: Easy

Screws: 12 total

  • 12 Thumbscrews (Phillips/Crosshead).
  1. Follow the steps in Removing the Top Case.
  2. It may be helpful, but is not necessary, to Remove the CPU Cooler Shroud.
  1. Press simultaneously on each clip on either side of the RAM stick (fig 21 above). These clips will release the RAM stick and lever it out of it’s slot on the board.
  2. Gently, but firmly pull the RAM straight out of the slot, and set aside.

Accessing the RAM release clips

Fig.41: Accessing the RAM release clips.

Placement of the RAM notch on the motherboard

Fig. 42: Placement of the RAM notch on the motherboard.

Placement of the RAM notch on the RAM stick

Fig. 43: Placement of the RAM notch on the RAM stick.

Return to Contents

Replacing RAM Sticks

Tools required: Fingers or Crosshead (Phillips) screwdriver (for Top Case)

Time estimate: 5 minutes

Difficulty: Easy

Screws: 12 total

  • 12 Thumbscrews (Phillips/Crosshead).
  1. Line up the notch on the stick with the notch in the slot. One side of the RAM stick has fewer pins and is shorter. This will help you orient the stick.
  2. Insert the RAM stick in the slot. The order of the slots matters, (see tables above).
  3. Press evenly on the memory stick until both tabs lock into place. You’ll hear two clicks once it’s seated, and the clips will snap closed against the RAM.
  4. Once the RAM is in place, replace the CPU Cooler Shroud (if applicable).
  5. Replace the Top Case.
  6. Reconnect external devices: keyboard, mouse, monitor(s).
  7. Reconnect external power cable and turn power-supply switch to the on position.
  8. Power the Thelio on to ensure the RAM is working correctly. If so, the computer will boot normally.

Placement of the RAM notch on the motherboard

Fig. 44: Indicating the RAM notch on the motherboard.

Placement of the RAM notch on the RAM stick

Fig. 45 Indicating the RAM notch on the RAM stick.

Pressing the RAM stick down into place

Fig. 46 Pressing the RAM stick down into place.

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GPU (Remove or replace)

Removing the GPU

In this guide, you will learn how to remove the graphics card on your Thelio. These steps must be taken in order to replace the GPU. You can find video instructions on this process here.

Link for the video for GPU removal: (https://youtu.be/3bUcp0S1HrE)

For this procedure, a Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver may be helpful, as well as a wooden or plastic (non-conductive) tool for reaching between components. A pencil, ruler, chopsticks or a plastic computer repair tool will work well. Do not use anything made of metal.

Tools required: Fingers or Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver, a tool for pressing the GPU release bracket (non-conductive).

Time estimate: 10 minutes.

Difficulty: Medium

Screws: 19 total

  • 19 Thumbscrews (Phillips/Cross-head).

Before you remove the lid, be sure to power off and unplug all cords from the computer.

  1. First follow the steps in Removing the Top Case.
  2. It may also be helpful to Remove the CPU Cooler Shroud.
  3. To remove your graphics card, twist off the 3 thumbscrews from the PCI bracket.
  4. Remove the GPU brace. Unscrew the bottom two screws, and then the top two screws, to remove the brace. Both the PCI bracket and the GPU brace keep your graphics card secure and in place (Fig 23).
  5. Remove the GPU from the PCIe slot by pressing on the release clip on the right. This is where your chosen (non-metal) poking tool may come in handy, to reach the clip on the board without trying to squeeze your hand between components.
  6. Disconnect the power cables from the GPU (if applicable), and tie back any cables you are not planning on using with the provided velcro straps.
  7. Now you are ready to install an alternative or replacement GPU.
  8. If you are not planning on installing another GPU follow the steps to Replace the CPU Cooler Shroud, Replace the Top Case, and reconnect all cables and peripherals.

Close view of the GPU leaving the PCIe slot

caption

PCIe release switch

Fig. 47: Close view of the GPU leaving the PCIe slot (top) and the PCIe release switch (bottom).

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Replacing the GPU

For this procedure, a Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver may be helpful, as well as a wooden or plastic (non-conductive) tool for reaching between components. A pencil, ruler, chopsticks or a plastic computer repair tool will work well. Do not use anything made of metal.

Tools required: Fingers or Crosshead (Phillips) screwdriver, a tool for pressing the GPU release bracket (non-conductive).

Time estimate: 10 minutes.

Difficulty: Medium

Screws: 19 total

  • 19 Thumbscrews (Phillips/Crosshead).

If you have not yet completed the steps to remove the PCI bracket and GPU brace, you will find these instructions in the section on Removing the GPU

Fig. 28: Replacing the thumbscrews and GPU Bracket.--> NOTE: Some GPU's use the PCI-e slot for power and don't need a cable. If your Thelio is configured with a Radeon RX 550 graphics card, for example, you will not find any power connector slots on your GPU. The cards compatible with this Thelio model require 8-pin, 12 pin or 16-pin power cable connections.

Showing variations of pin connections on GPU cards - 8/12/16 pin

Fig: 48 Showing variations of pin connections on GPU cards - 16-pin (left), 12-pin (middle), 8-pin (right).

Thelio internal context view of PCIe slot

Fig. 49: Thelio internal context view of PCIe slot.

Close up view of the PCIe slot

Fig. 50: Close up view of the PCIe slots.

  1. After removing the GPU (Or, if no GPU is installed, removing the bracket, insert the new graphics card into the PCIe slot until it clicks into place.
  2. Once the GPU is securely in place, attach the internal and external brackets.
  3. Securely fasten the brackets in place with the provided thumbscrews.
  4. Prepare the necessary power connectors for your graphics card. You can tell which wires you’ll need by looking at the ports on the front of your GPU. The necessary cabling is provided inside your Thelio’s chassis.
  5. Do not connect the cables to the GPU until it has been inserted in the PCIe slot and secured with the brackets.
  6. Connect the power cables to the GPU selecting the cables based on the number of pins (See NOTE below).
  7. Wrap up any unused wires with the velcro strap and store those wires back in the chassis so that they’re not blocking the fan.
  8. Once the GPU is connected and the power cables secured (fig #), replace the Top Case, reconnect external power cable.
  9. Turn the power supply switch at the rear of the machine to the “on” position.

[IMAGE OF GPU CABLING] Fig. 51

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Drives (Remove or Replace)

In this guide, you will learn how to remove or replace drives in your Thelio. You can find video instructions on this process here.

Link for the video for Drive Service removal: (https://youtu.be/6fIeVEaY7dE)

2.5" SATA Drives

The Thelio Major B2 provides eight (8) slots for 2.5” SATA drives. They are housed in the Thelio Drive Cage for easy access. Each drive is connected to a SATA port on the Thelio IO board, which acts as a conduit, connecting the drives to the motherboard.

M.2 Drives

The number and location of M.2 drives, differs between the Thelio Major R and B models.

Thelio Major's front M.2 drive slots Fig. 52: Thelio Major (thelio-major-r2) front M.2 drive slots (left). Fig. 53: Thelio Major (thelio-major-b2) front M.2 drive slots (right)

Thelio Major R2

The Thelio Major R2 has three (3) M.2 drive slots. One on the board, above the PCIe slot which holds the GPU, one below the right-side RAM slots, and one to the right of the lower 3 PCIe slots (Fig. 52).

Thelio Major B2

The Thelio Major B2 has one two (2) M.2 Drive slots. One on above the top PCIe slot, and one below the top PCIe slot (Fig. 53).

Depending on the M.2 drive slot you intend to use, remove the CPU Cooler Shroud and/or GPU to gain easier access. You can find video instructions on this process here.

Link for the video for GPU removal: (https://youtu.be/3bUcp0S1HrE)

Replacing a 2.5 Drive

Tools required: Fingers or Crosshead (Phillips) screwdriver, a tool for pressing the GPU release bracket (non-conductive).

Time estimate: 10 minutes.

Difficulty: Easy

Screws: 12 total

  • 8 Thumbscrews (Phillips/Crosshead) in the Top Case.
  • 4 Thumbscrews (Phillips/Crosshead) per Drive.

Before you remove the lid, be sure to power off and unplug all cords from the computer.

To remove the drive, gently pull on the drive and slide it out from the drive cage.

Return to Contents

Installing a 2.5 Drive

Tools required: Fingers or Crosshead (Phillips) screwdriver, a tool for pressing the GPU release bracket (non-conductive).

Time estimate: 10 minutes.

Difficulty: Easy

Screws: 12 total

  • 8 Thumbscrews (Phillips/Crosshead) in the Top Case.
  • 4 Thumbscrews (Phillips/Crosshead) per Drive.

To add a 2.5-inch drive, you’ll need 4 screws to secure the drive in place. Extra screws are provided on the chassis for convenience.

  1. Follow the steps to Remove the Top Case.
  2. You may want to remove the washer out of the provided bar-bracket. Do so by pushing up from underneath the bracket until the washer pops out.
  3. Next, slide each screw along the bar-bracket to the opening and remove the screw.
  4. Screw these four thumbscrews into the holes at the corners of the drive to keep it securely fastened in the drive cage.
  5. Before inserting the drive into the drive cage, line up the connectors on the drive with the connectors in the drive cage.
  6. Then, line up the inside of the grommet with the prongs on the drive cage, and insert the drive until it locks into place.
  7. Replace the Top Case and reconnect all cables.

Thelio Top Bracket with provided drive screws

Fig.54: Thelio Top Bracket with provided drive screws.

Aligning the drive screws and grommets with drive cage slots

Fig. 55: Aligning the drive screws and grommets with drive cage slots.

Inserting the drive in to the cage slot

Fig. 56: Inserting the drive in to the cage slot.

Drive inserted almost fully in the slot

Fig. 57: Drive inserted almost fully in the slot.

Pressing the drive firmly into place

Fig: 58 Pressing the drive firmly into place.

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Removing an M.2 Drive

Removing an M.2 may require removal of the GPU or CPU Cooler Shroud for easier access. A Crosshead (Phillips) screwdriver is required.

Tools required: Fingers or Crosshead (Phillips) screwdriver, a tool for pressing the GPU release bracket (non-conductive).

Time estimate: 5-10 minutes.

Difficulty: Easy

Screws: 9 total

  • 8 Thumbscrews (Phillips/Crosshead) in the Top Case.
  • 1 M.2 securing screw (per Drive).
  1. Follow the steps to Remove the Top Case.
  2. Remove the CPU Cooler Shroud (if applicable).
  3. Remove the GPU (if applicable).
  4. Unscrew the M.2 screw opposite the M.2 slot. Set it safely aside.
  5. Gently, but firmly remove the M.2 drive horizontally from the slot.
  6. Replace the screw, fastening the M.2 in place.
  7. Replace the GPU (if applicable).
  8. Replace the CPU Cooler Shroud (if applicable).
  9. Replace the Top Case.
  10. Reconnect all cables and peripherals.

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Replacing an M.2 Drive

Replacing an M.2 drive may require removal of the GPU or CPU Cooler Shroud for easier access. A Crosshead (Phillips) screwdriver is required.

Tools required: Fingers or Crosshead (Phillips) screwdriver, a tool for pressing the GPU release bracket (non-conductive).

Time estimate: 5-10 minutes.

Difficulty: Easy

Screws: 13 total

  • 12 Thumbscrews (Phillips/Crosshead) in the Top Case.
  • 1 M.2 securing screw (per Drive).
  1. Follow the steps to Remove the Top Case.
  2. Remove the CPU Cooler Shroud (if applicable).
  3. Remove the GPU (if applicable).
  4. Unscrew the M.2 screw opposite the M.2 slot. Set it safely aside.
  5. Line up the notch on the M.2 drive.
  6. Insert the new drive into its port on the motherboard.
  7. Replace the screw, fastening the M.2 in place.
  8. Replace the GPU (if applicable).
  9. Replace the CPU Cooler Shroud (if applicable).
  10. Replace the Top Case.
  11. Reconnect all cables and peripherals.

NOTE: By default, the first of the two M.2 drives (NVMe or not) stores your operating system, so you will need to reinstall the OS after replacing it. This can be done by restoring from a backup, or from a fresh install.

Pop!_OS users, instructions to reinstall the OS can be found here: https://support.system76.com/articles/install-pop/

Ubuntu users, instructions to reinstall the OS can be found here: https://support.system76.com/articles/install-ubuntu/.

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CPU Thermal Paste (Remove or Replace)

If you are experiencing thermal issues with your Thelio, one possible solution is to change the Thermal paste. Thermal paste helps transfer heat from the CPU to the CPU Cooler via the heat sink.

Thermal paste can lose its effectiveness over time and may need to be re-applied.

This guide will explain how to remove the CPU Cooler, clean the CPU of thermal paste, and reapply a new coat.

WARNING: DO NOT use your Thelio without thermal paste. Running the machine without Thermal Paste could result in overheating, system shutdowns and possibly damage to the internal components.

Remove the CPU Thermal Paste

Removing CPU thermal paste requires removal of the CPU Cooler Shroud. It may also require removing the GPU for easier access.

Tools required: Crosshead (Phillips) screwdriver, Rubbing Alcohol, Paper Towels, Thermal Paste.

Time estimate: 15-20 mins.

Difficulty: Hard

Screws: 16 total

  • 8 Thumbscrews (Phillips/Crosshead) on the Top Case.
  • 4 Thumbscrews (Phillips/Crosshead) on the CPU Cooler Shroud.
  • 4 Bracket Screws securing the CPU heat sink.
  1. Follow the steps in Removing the Top Case.
  2. Follow the steps in Removing the CPU Cooler Shroud.
  3. Follow the steps in Removing the GPU (if applicable).
  4. Gently but firmly separate the Cooling Fans from the Heat Sink. The fans are held on by clips which can be pried from the sides of the heat sink.
  5. Next, disconnect the power cables from the Cooling Fans.
  6. Remove the four (4) bracket screws fastening the Heat Sink to the board. Loosen the screws one at a time. Move from opposite corner to opposite corner, diagonally across the Heat Sink. For example: first, top left screw, then bottom right screw (fig. 34). This ensures even pressure between the brackets and the motherboard.
  7. Lift the Heat Sink off of the motherboard.
  8. You’ll notice that there is Thermal Paste coating the bottom of the Heat Sink as well as the CPU core.
  9. Apply Rubbing Alcohol to a sheet of Paper Towel and wipe the Thermal Paste off of the bottom of the Heat Sink and CPU core until they are totally clean.
  10. If you are replacing the Thermal Paste, continue on to the section Replacing the CPU Thermal Paste (See Important NOTE below).
  11. Replace the Heat Sink over the CPU core.
  12. Re-fasten the Heat Sink screws, again using the opposite corner method described above.
  13. Follow the steps to Replace the GPU (if applicable).
  14. Follow the steps to Replace the CPU Cooler Shroud.
  15. Follow the steps to Replace the Top Case.

Return to Contents

Replace the CPU Thermal paste

Replacing CPU thermal requires removal of the CPU Cooler Shroud. It may also require removing the GPU for easier access.

Tools required: Crosshead (Phillips) screwdriver, Thermal Paste.

Time estimate: 15-20 mins.

Difficulty: Easy

Screws: 12 total

  • 8 Thumbscrews (Phillips/Crosshead) on the Top Case.
  • 4 Thumbscrews (Phillips/Crosshead) on the CPU Cooler Shroud.
  • 4 Bracket Screws securing the CPU heat sink.
  1. Follow steps 1-9 in Removing the CPU Thermal Paste.
  2. Once the Heat Sink and CPU core are free of old Thermal Paste, apply new paste in a line down the middle of the CPU core (fig. 37).
  3. Once the paste is applied, replace the Heat Sink over top of it. The Heat Sink will spread the thermal paste across the CPU core, there is no need to spread it yourself.
  4. Re-fasten the four (4) screws on the Heat Sink. In fastening the screws, partially tighten them one at a time, and move diagonally to the opposite corner. For example, tighten the top-left screw halfway, then move to the bottom right, and tighten that halfway. Repeat until all screws are tight. This ensures even pressure between the brackets and the motherboard.
  5. Once the Heat Sink is fastened down, clip the CPU Cooling Fans back onto the Heat Sink.
  6. Reconnect the power cables to the CPU Cooling Fans.
  7. Follow the steps in Replacing the GPU (if applicable).
  8. Next, follow the steps in Replacing the CPU Cooler Shroud.
  9. Follow the steps in Replacing the Top Case.
  10. Reconnect all external cables and peripherals, and turn the Power Supply switch to the “on” position.
  11. Power on the Thelio to ensure successful boot.

NOTE: The pictures shown here are the Thelio R1 (AMD) model with a Threadripper processor. However, the process and cautions when removing and replacing thermal paste are the same for both Intel and AMD Thelio Majors.

A cleaned CPU core

Fig. 59: A cleaned CPU core.

Reapplied thermal paste on the core

Fig. 60: Reapplied thermal paste on the core.

Return to Contents

Thelio Massive (thelio-massive-b1.2)

Thelio Massive

The System76 Thelio Massive is a desktop with the following specifications:

  • CPU options
  • Motherboard
    • ASUS WS C621E SAGE running System76 Firmware (non-open)
    • Intel C621 chipset
  • Daughterboard
  • GPU options
  • Memory
    • Up to 1536GB (12x128GB) six-channel Registered ECC DDR4 DIMMs @ 2933 MHz
    • Up to 768GB (6x128GB) per CPU
  • Networking
    • 2x Gigabit Ethernet (Intel I210-AT)
    • Optional Gigabyte Wireless-AC (a/b/g/n/ac) with Bluetooth
  • Power
    • EVGA SuperNOVA 1600W G2 80+ Gold Certified PSU
    • C19 power cable
  • Sound
    • 3.5mm line out, line in, microphone jacks
    • Optical S/PDIF out
    • Up to 7.1-channel audio output
    • Realtek ALC S1220A audio chipset
    • HDMI, DisplayPort, USB-C DisplayPort audio (depending on GPU)
  • Storage
    • 1x M.2 (PCIe NVMe or SATA)
    • 8x 2.5" SATA
    • 4x 2.5" U.2 (NVMe) SAS
    • SD card reader
  • USB
    • 1x USB 3.1 Gen 2 Type-C
    • 1x USB 3.1 Gen 2 Type-A
    • 4x USB 3.1 Gen 1 Type-A
    • 2x USB 2.0 Type-A
  • Dimensions
    • 49.2cm x 26.2cm x 52.7cm

Thelio Massive (External Overview)

Back side overview:

Back Ports

Audio Port Guide:

  • Green: Line Out / Front Speaker Out
  • Pink: Mic In
  • Light Blue: Line In / Side Speaker Out
  • Orange: Center/Subwoofer Out
  • Black: Rear Speaker Out
  • White (square): S/PDIF Digital Out

Power Switch Guide:

  • 1: On
  • 0: Off

Thelio Massive (Internal Overview)

Side overview:

Internal overview (side)

  • RAM slots are highlighted in green
  • PCIe slots are highlighted in red
  • M.2 SSD is highlighted in cyan
  • Power supply is highlighted in yellow
  • 2.5" drive slots are highlighted in purple
  • Thelio-IO to motherboard connections are highlighted in olive

PCIe slot guide:

From top to bottom:

  1. PCIe Gen 3 x16 slot (GPU 4)
    • Only available if two CPUs are installed
  2. PCIe Gen 3 x8 slot
    • Only available if two CPUs are installed
  3. PCIe Gen 3 x16 slot (GPU 1)
    • Runs at x8 if slot 4 (immediately below) is also in use
  4. PCIe Gen 3 x8 slot
  5. PCIe Gen 3 x16 slot (GPU 2)
  6. PCIe Gen 3 x8 slot
    • Only available if two CPUs are installed
  7. PCIe Gen 3 x16 slot (GPU 3)
    • Only available if two CPUs are installed

See the repairs page for GPU installation instructions, including recommended GPU placement.

Top overview:

Internal overview (top)

  • RAM slot clips are highlighted in green
  • Top exhaust fans are highlighted in yellow
  • SATA ports are highlighted in cyan
  • SAS (U.2) ports are highlighted in purple
  • Power button receptacle is highlighted in red

Thelio Massive (Parts & Repairs)

Many components in your Thelio Massive can be upgraded or replaced as necessary. Power the machine off, switch off the power supply, and unplug all peripherals before working with any internal components. Then, follow these step-by-step guides for instructions:

Removing the top case:

The top case can be removed to access the internal components.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver (optional)
Time estimate: 2 minutes
Difficulty: Easy

Steps to remove the top case:

  1. Remove the eight outer screws holding the top case onto the machine.

Top case screws

  1. Slide the top case up and off of the machine.

Removing the inner partition:

The inner partition provides a brace for the outer case and helps hold the internal components in place. The partition needs to be removed to access most internal components.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver (optional)
Time estimate: 5 minutes
Difficulty: Easy

Steps to remove the inner partition:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the top case.
  2. Unscrew the three additional back screws holding the inner partition in place from the back.

Back partition screws

  1. Unscrew the three inner screws holding the partition in place from the side.

Side partition screws

  1. Lift the inner partition away from the case.

Adding/removing 2.5" storage drives:

Thelio Massive b1.2 supports up to eight 2.5" SATA III drives and up to four 2.5" U.2 NVMe drives (with SAS connectors.)

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 5 minutes
Difficulty: Easy

Steps to add/remove 2.5" storage drives:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the top case and remove the inner partition.
  2. Unscrew the four screws holding the plastic screw cover onto the inner partition.

Storage drive screw cover

  1. Pop out one of the black plastic rings and slide four screws (per drive) out of the inner partition.

Storage drive screws

  1. Insert four screws into each 2.5" storage drive you wish to install.
  2. Slide each 2.5" drive into one of the slots above the Thelio-IO boards.

2.5" drive installation

In the below photo, the eight SATA slots are highlighted green, while the four U.2/SAS slots are highlighted blue.

2.5" storage slots

Replacing the case fans:

Thelio Massive b1.2 has four case-mounted fans: two on the bottom, and two on the side next to the motherboard.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 15 minutes
Difficulty: Medium

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the top case and remove the inner partition.
  2. Unscrew the fan's screws on the opposite side from where it's mounted. (For the bottom fans, the machine will need to be tilted to access the screws on the bottom.)

Case fan screws

  1. Unplug and remove the fan.
  2. When replacing the fan, the components should be mounted in the following order:
    • Chassis
    • Dust filter
    • Acrylic spacer
    • Fan

Replacing a GPU:

Thelio Massive supports up to four dual-slot GPUs with PCIe 3.0 x16. Mixing NVIDIA and AMD GPUs is not recommended.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 10 minutes
Difficulty: Easy

Steps to replace a GPU:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the top case and remove the inner partition.
  2. Unscrew the four back screws holding the PCIe bracket in place, then remove the PCIe bracket.

PCIe bracket screws

  1. If you're removing a GPU, unplug the GPU power cable from the right side of the card. Hold down the latch on the connector while unplugging the cable.

GPU power connections

  1. Hold the latch on the motherboard to free the PCIe connection, then pull the card out of the slot.
    • If removing one of the inner GPUs, it may be necessary to remove one of the outer GPUs first in order to reach the latch.
    • If space is tight, a long object such as a screwdriver can be used to press the latch.

PCIe latches

  1. When installing new GPUs, the slots should be utilized in the following order:
    • Primary GPU: third slot from the top.
    • Secondary GPU: fifth slot from the top.
    • Tertiary GPU: seventh slot from the top (bottom slot).
    • Quaternary GPU: top slot.

GPU slot order

  1. After inserting the new GPU into its slot, connect the power cables. The maximum number of power cables are preinstalled in your system, but some may be tied back using velcro if the system shipped with less than four GPUs.
  2. Once all GPUs are installed, replace the back PCIe bracket, inner partition, and top case.
    • The inner partition includes a plastic GPU brace, which may be sized differently depending on how many GPUs your system shipped with. To remove the brace, unscrew it from the inner partition.

GPU brace screws

The plastic GPU brace's primary function is to prevent damage during shipping. The system can be run without the brace if it doesn't fit an upgraded card; the back PCIe bracket provides primary support for the GPUs.

Replacing the M.2 drive:

Thelio Massive has one M.2 slot, which supports either PCIe NVMe Gen 3 x4 or SATA III. The following M.2 sizes are supported: 2242, 2260, 2280, 22110.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 15 minutes
Difficulty: Easy

Steps to replace the M.2 drive:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the top case, remove the inner partition, and remove the GPUs.
  2. Unscrew the retainer screw opposite the M.2 slot.

M.2 slot screw

  1. Remove the existing M.2 drive by pulling it out of the slot.
  2. Insert the new M.2 drive into the slot and hold it in place.
  3. Replace the retainer screw.
  4. Replace the GPUs, inner partition, and top case.

Removing the CPU shroud:

The CPU shroud guides airflow through the CPU coolers. It covers the CPUs and RAM slots on the motherboard.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver (optional)
Time estimate: 7 minutes
Difficulty: Easy

Steps to remove the CPU shroud:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the top case and remove the inner partition.
  2. Unplug the connectors for the two top exhaust fans. (The top exhaust fans are secured to the CPU shroud.)

Top exhaust fans

The connectors (highlighted above) attach the top exhaust fans to extension cables, which attach to a five-port hub along with the CPU fans. It is not necessary to remove the extension cables.

  1. Unscrew the three back screws holding the CPU shroud in place.

Back CPU shroud screws

  1. Unscrew the three side screws holding the CPU shroud in place (on the opposite side from the motherboard.)

Side CPU shroud screws

  1. Pull the CPU shroud away from the machine.

Note for older revisions: thelio-massive-b1.0 included two additional screws connecting the top crossbar to the CPU shroud. The top crossbar is not attached to the CPU shroud on this revision.

Top crossbar screws

Replacing the RAM:

Thelio Massive b1.2 supports up to 1536GB (12x128GB) of RAM, or 768GB (6x128GB) per CPU. The RAM sticks are Registered ECC DDR4 DIMMs running at a speed of 2933MHz. If you've purchased new RAM, need to replace your RAM, or are reseating your RAM, follow these steps.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver (optional)
Time estimate: 15 minutes
Difficulty: Easy

Steps to replace the RAM:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the top case, remove the inner partition, and remove the CPU shroud.
  2. To remove an existing RAM stick, flip the top latch up away from the stick, then pull the stick out of the slot, starting from the top edge. (The bottom of the RAM slot does not move.)

RAM slots

  1. Insert the new RAM (or re-seat the existing RAM) into the slot. The RAM stick will only fit in one direction; the larger group of pins goes on top. Use the following guides for placement of the RAM sticks:

    • Single-CPU RAM slot placement: 1-CPU RAM order
    • Dual-CPU RAM slot placement: 2-CPU RAM order
  2. Replace the CPU shroud, inner partition, and top case.

Replacing the CPU fans:

Thelio Massive b1.2 contains four CPU fans (two per CPU.) All coolers and fans are preinstalled, regardless of how many CPUs the system shipped with.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver (optional)
Time estimate: 15 minutes
Difficulty: Easy

Steps to replace the CPU fans:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the top case, remove the inner partition, and remove the CPU shroud.
  2. Each fan is secured by two clips (one on each side). Pull the clip down (away from the fan), then sideways (away from the heatsink) to release the fan.

CPU fan clips

  1. Once the fan is free, lift it away from the heatsink and unplug the four-pin connector attaching it to the Y-cable.
    • Two Y-cables connect two CPU fans each to a five-port hub, which also connects to the extension cables for the top exhaust fans.
    • The top exhaust fans plug into ports "FAN1" and "FAN2", while the CPU fans plug into ports "FAN3" and "FAN4". The port labeled "CPU" is left disconnected.

CPU fan hub

  1. If necessary, lift the bracket off of the old fan and place it onto the new fan.
  2. Clip the fan back onto the heatsink and plug it into the Y-cable.

Replacing the CPU cooler:

Thelio Massive b1.2 contains two CPU coolers (one for each CPU.) Each cooler contains two fans. All coolers and fans are preinstalled, regardless of how many CPUs the system shipped with.

Tools required: Hex key (included in Thelio Massive case), cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver (optional)
Time estimate: 20 minutes
Difficulty: High

Steps to replace the CPU cooler:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the top case, remove the inner partition, remove the CPU shroud, and remove the CPU fans for the cooler you are removing.
  2. Locate the hex key/Allen wrench, which is attached to the case via the velcro cable ties behind the motherboard.
  3. While holding the cooler in place so it doesn't fall, loosen the cooler's screws in reverse order, starting with the center screws (labeled #2), then the corner screws (labeled #1).
    • The corner screws require reaching the hex key through the holes in the heatsink.

CPU cooler screws

The CPU cooler screws are held in place by springs, and will not detatch once they are loosened.

  1. Once all four screws are loosened, the CPU cooler (including the CPU) will lift away from the motherboard.
    • Caution: Be careful not to bend any of the gold pins on the CPU socket, and do not touch the gold pads on the CPU.
  2. When replacing the CPU cooler, tighten the screws in the order they are labeled, starting with the corner screws (labeled #1), then the center screws (labeled #2).

Replacing the CPU/thermal paste:

The CPUs clip into the heatsinks before the heatsinks are installed onto the motherboard.

Tools required: Hex key (included in Thelio Massive case), cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver (optional)
Time estimate: 25 minutes
Difficulty: High

Steps to replace the CPU/thermal paste:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the top case, remove the inner partition, remove the CPU shroud, remove the CPU fans, and remove the CPU cooler.
  2. The CPU is held onto the heatsink by two plastic clips. Release one of the clips by pulling down on the large plastic tab, then carefully lift the CPU off of the heatsink.
    • Caution: Do not touch the gold pads on the CPU.
    • It may take some pressure to break the seal of the thermal paste.

CPU clips

  1. Remove the black plastic clip from the heatsink by pulling the tabs on each corner.
  2. Using a paper towel, clean the existing thermal paste off of the heatsink and GPU. You may also use a small amount of rubbing alcohol if the old paste is dried or difficult to remove.

Thermal paste removal

  1. Place the black plastic clip back onto the heatsink and apply thermal paste to the heatsink.
  2. Place the CPU back into the black plastic clip. One corner of the CPU and one corner of the clip are marked with triangles; be sure to match these triangles together.

CPU installation

  1. Place the heatsink/CPU back onto the motherboard, matching the triangles on the plastic clip/CPU (highlighted above) with the diagonal corner on the CPU socket (highlighted below).

CPU orientation

  1. See Replacing the CPU cooler for more information about re-attaching the cooler to the motherboard.

Replacing the top exhaust fans:

The top exhaust fans assist the CPU fans in expelling hot air from the case.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver
Time estimate: 10 minutes
Difficulty: Easy

Steps to replace the top exhaust fans:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the top case and remove the inner partition. (The CPU shroud can optionally be removed.)
  2. Unscrew the three screws attaching the fan to the CPU shroud.

Top exhaust fan screws

  1. Unplug the fan from the extension cable and remove it from the case.
  2. Screw the new fan into the CPU shroud, plug it in, and replace the inner partition and top case.

Troubleshooting the power button:

If the front power button doesn't power the machine on or doesn't light up when the system is powered on, try the following troubleshooting steps:

  1. Ensure the system powers on normally using the internal power button.
  2. Reseat the front power button to ensure it's making proper contact.
  3. Check the wiring for the front power button.
  4. Replace the front power button, if necessary.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver (optional)
Time estimate: 20 minutes
Difficulty: Medium

Steps to power the machine on using the internal power button:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the top case and remove the inner partition.
  2. Ensure the system is plugged into power, and the power supply switch is in the 1 (On) position.
  3. Push the small button labeled B0 on the Thelio-IO board closest to the front corner of the case.

Internal power button

Steps to check the front power button wiring:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the top case and remove the inner partition.
  2. On the back of the power button, the four pins should be connected to the four-wire connector as follows:

Power button wiring

  1. On the front power button receptacle, the four-pin connector should have the red wire on the left and the black wire on the right.

Power button receptacle

  1. The front power button receptacle should plug into the PFPD port on the Thelio-IO board closest to the front corner of the machine, with the red wire on the left and the black wire on the right.

Power button wiring on Thelio-IO board

  1. The PMBD port on the Thelio-IO board should connect to the motherboard:
    • The red wire on the four-port connector should be on the left (the farthest in) on the Thelio-IO board.
    • The other side of the cable connects to the bottom right of the motherboard:
      • The individual black wire plugs into POWERLED+.
      • The individual red wire plugs into POWERLED-.
      • The two-wire connector plugs into POWERBTN# and GND, with the blue wire on the left (into POWERBTN#.)

Power button wiring on motherboard

Steps to replace the power button:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the top case.
  2. Follow the instructions in the Replace the Thelio Power Button support article.

Troubleshooting the Thelio-IO USB connection:

The Thelio-IO boards connect to the motherboard's USB headers for firmware updates and fan control within the host OS. If the fans seem to be stuck on full blast, check the Thelio-IO USB connections.

Tools required: Cross-head (Phillips) screwdriver (optional)
Time estimate: 15 minutes
Difficulty: Medium

Steps to check the USB wiring:

  1. Follow the steps above to remove the top case.
  2. Two of the Thelio-IO boards have USB0 ports. The port on each board connects to a four-pin cable with the red wire on the left (farthest into the case).
  3. The two four-pin cables plug into the motherboard's USB headers just to the left of the M.2 slot.

USB wiring on Thelio-IO board

Components

System76 uses a wide variety of component vendors, including:

Intel

Intel produces CPUs, PCHs, and other components for System76.

Intel CPUs

Intel Comet Lake-U (CML-U) CPU

The Intel Comet Lake-U CPU is designed for mobile devices and includes an integrated PCH, the Intel 400 series chipset. The available SKUs may be seen at the Intel ARK.

Documentation

Documentation for the CML-U CPU may be found at the Intel Resource and Design Center. Some documentation may require signing an NDA. After logging in with a privileged account, the Comet Lake U Technical Library will be available with all relevant documentation.

Firmware Support

Support for the CML-U CPU is provided by the following:

  • coreboot soc/cannonlake
    • Configured by mainboard source code and build configuration
    • Correct mainboard source code and build configuration is provided with System76 firmware
  • Intel Firmware Support Package (FSP) CometLakeFspBinPkg/CometLake1
    • Configured using Updateable Product Data (UPD)
    • UPDs are set by coreboot based on mainboard source code and build configuration
    • Correct mainboard source code and build configuration is provided with System76 firmware
  • Intel Graphics Output Protocol (GOP) 9.0 - Optional
    • Configured using the Video BIOS Table (VBT)
    • VBT is edited using Intel Binary Modification Program (BMP)
    • Sample VBT is available from Intel FSP repository
    • Correct VBT is provided with System76 firmware
  • Intel Management Engine (ME) 14.0
    • Configured using the Intel Firmware Descriptor (FD) as well as ME filesystem
    • Intel FD and ME filesystem is edited by Intel Flash Image Tool (FIT)
    • Correct Intel FD and ME is provided with System76 firmware
  • Intel Microcode
    • Comet Lake U42 - 806EC
    • Comet Lake U64 - A0660
    • Correct microcode is provided with System76 firmware
  • Model-specific configuration can be found in model documentation

Intel Management Engine (ME)

The Intel Management Engine is integrated into the Intel Platform Controller Hub (PCH). It participates in the CPU and PCH boot process, and has runtime components to implement functionality that is not implemented in CPU firmware, such as firmware TPM (fTPM).

Documentation

Documentation is difficult to find. Incomplete information about the Intel ME can be found on Wikipedia. Sometimes confidential information is found on the Intel Resource and Design Center, especially where the firmware has to communicate with the Intel ME in order to boot the system.

Releases

Intel ME versions follow a format of GENERATION.SKU.HOTFIX.BUILD. Releases are done at the Intel Validation Internet Portal. It is up to the motherboard manufacturer to configure the Intel ME using the Intel Flash Image Tool (FIT), which produces a distributable firmware image. It is not permitted to distribute the Intel FIT to the end user. System76 closely monitors for Intel ME releases and updates our firmware images as necessary.

Neutralization

The Intel ME poses potential security security risks due to its access to the system and an inability for users, even including motherboard and firmware vendors, to audit the source code of the Intel ME firmware. Disabling all functionality of the Intel ME is not possible. Methods for disabling runtime components vary between versions. System76 Open Firmware disables runtime components of the Intel ME using the most capable method possible.

Intel Platform Controller Hub (PCH)

The Intel Platform Controller Hub provides I/O to Intel CPUs, typically over the Direct Media Interface.

Intel 400 Series Low-Power PCH (400 PCH-LP)

The Intel 400 Series Low-Power PCH is integrated into the Intel Comet Lake-U (CML-U) CPU, so information can be found there instead.

Texas Instruments (TI)

Texas Instruments produces a number of components for System76.